African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002

AJB Articles

July 2018

Potential evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from alcoholic fermentation of mango pulp

The fermentation characteristics of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from sugar cane musts for the production of cachaça (Brazilian sugar cane spirit) and from beer musts were analyzed based on the kinetic parameters of alcoholic fermentation in mango pulp. The commercial pressed baker’s yeast was used as a standard inoculum. The results show that the yeast strains tested from sugar...

Author(s): Cosme Damião Barbosa, Inayara Cristina Alves Lacerda and Evelyn de Souza Oliveira

July 2018

Effects of aqueous seed extracts of Mucuna sloanei (Fabaceae) on body weight and some biochemical parameters of Rattus novergicus

Mucuna sloanei is an annual leguminous plant widely used among the various ethnic groups in Nigeria. The effects of aqueous M. sloanei seed extract on the body weight and some biochemical parameters of 48 normal male Rattus novergicus (albino rats) were investigated for 28 days. The rats were divided into control group (A) which received distilled water and treatment groups (B, C and D) that received oral administration...

Author(s): Ugwu, Godwin C., Ejere, Vincent C., Okanya, Chinagorom L., Omeje, Joy N., Egbuji, Jude V., Onu, Martina C. and Chukwuka, Christian O.

July 2018

Effect of seasonal variations on the yield of essential oil and antioxidant of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk) Sch. Bip

Temperature stress is becoming the major concern for plant scientists worldwide due to climate change. Temperature stress has devastating effects on plant growth and metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of climatic seasonal change on the yield and composition of essential oil of the plant, Achillea fragrantissima. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used to analyze the essential...

Author(s): Eman Elsharkawy, and Nour El-Din M. Nahed

July 2018

Phytochemical profile and biological activities of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae): A review

This study discusses the bioactive composition, supercritical fluid extraction and biological activities of Momordica charantia L. from the last five years. Numerous compounds that have been identified in the extracts of M. charantia, including phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, phenolic acids and flavonoids were also discussed. Although, several studies reported the use of organic solvents in...

Author(s): Mozaniel Santana de Oliveira, Wanessa Almeida da Costa, Fernanda Wariss Figueiredo Bezerra, Marilena Emmi Araújo, Gracialda Costa Ferreira and Raul Nunes de Carvalho Junior,

July 2018

Enhancement of somaclonal variations and genetic diversity using graphite nanoparticles (GtNPs) in sweet potato plants

To assay the efficiency of graphite nanoparticles (GtNPs) in sterilizing tissues and their role in enhancing genetic diversity, sweet potato is considered an important crop; hence its explants were used. In this experiment, GtNPs of 200, 400 and 800 ppm concentrations were used for sterilization of MS callus induction and regeneration media in Abees cultivar. The results showed that GtNPs had a good potential for...

Author(s): Aziza A. Aboulila, Ola A. Galal and M. F. M. El-Samahy

July 2018

Comparative evaluation of the physicochemical and pasting properties of flour from three varieties of Brachystegia spp.

The chemical compositions, functional and pasting properties of flour from three varieties of Brachystegia spp. (Brachystegia eurycoma, Brachystegia nigerica and Brachystegia kennedy) were studied. Results show that the chemical compositions of flour samples ranged from12.31 to 12.67% (protein), 1.66 to 1.72% (crude fiber), 2.06 to 2.39% (ash), 7.18 to 8.45% (fat), 3.85 to 4.75% (sugar) and 58.45 to 59.62% (starch)....

Author(s): Okorie, P. A. and Ikegwu, O. J.

July 2018

Molecular diagnosis of phytoplasma transmission from zygotic embryos to in vitro regenerated plants of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.)

The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission of the lethal yellowing disease (LYD) of coconut tree caused by a phytoplasma from the zygotic embryo to the regenerated plantlet in vitro. From a total of 30 trees, 150 mature coconut nuts where harvested. These nuts were used to extract 150 zygotic embryos. From this package, 96 zygotic embryos were used to regenerate 96 young coconut seedlings in vitro and the...

Author(s): DARAMCOUM Wentoin Alimata Marie Pierre, KONAN Konan Jean-Louis, YAO Saraka Didier Martial, YAIMA Arocha Rosete, KOFFI Eric-Blanchard Zadjéhi, YOBOUE Koffi, KOUASSI Kan Modeste, KOUADJO Claude Ghislaine, KOFFI Edmond, KOFFI Kouadio Kan Ghislain and N’GUETTA Assanvo Simon-Pierre

July 2018

Antimicrobial activity of metabolites extracted from Zanthoxylum gilletii, Markhamia lutea and their endophytic fungi against common bean bacterial pathogens

Antibacterial activity of extracts of Zanthoxylum gilletii, Markhamia lutea and their fungal endophytes were evaluated against bacterial pathogens of common bean: Xanthomonus axonopodis pv. phaseoli and Pseudomonus syringae pv. phaseolicola. The leaves of both plants were dried under shade, ground to fine powder and extracted using methanol. The methanol extracts were fractionated sequentially using ethylacetate and...

Author(s): Lucy Aketch Wanga, Isabel Nyokabi Wagara, Ramadhan Mwakubambanya and Josphat Clement Matasyoh

June 2018

Activation of TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway and production of diverse cytokines in the incidence and development of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

Aspergillus fumigatus is a common saprophytic fungus in the air. It can cause a severe infectious disease called invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). To establish the activation of TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) model of wild type mouse, three groups of mouse were used in the study; the normal mice; mice infected with A. fumigatus conidia; IPA mouse infected with A....

Author(s): MA Guangqiang, WU Su-fang, LUO Hong-dan, XIE Wei-hua, LONG KAI, SU Ming-sheng and XIE Xiao-mei

June 2018

Bio-prospecting of macro-algae for potential industrial dyes

Synthetic dyes have been used for different purposes in various fields, but their continued usage has presented both environmental and health challenges. Therefore, alternative safer dye sources are inevitable. Algae have different pigments with potential for exploitation and usage in different socio-economic sectors. The aim of this study was to bio prospect dyes from macro-algal species of the Indian Ocean marine...

Author(s): Christine W. Njiru, Huxley M. Makonde, John M. Kahindo, Edwin O. Matoka and Charles M. Matoka

June 2018

Diversity and genetic identity of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] in Tanzania based on microsatellite markers

Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] is an important fruit crop cultivated in Tanzania. However, the knowledge on genetic diversity of the pineapple cultivars grown in Tanzania is limited. This study was aimed at determining the genetic diversity and identity of pineapple cultivars from different growing regions in Tanzania using microsatellite markers also known as simple sequence repeat marker (SSR). Ten of the 18...

Author(s): Abdalah Makaranga, Miccah Songelael Seth, Ayub Ndee, Emmarold E. Mneney, George Mbwambo, Kusirieli Lema, Aron Godfrey, Lilian Mrema, Andrew Kachiwile, Emmanuel Mrema and Theodosy J. Msogoya

June 2018

Alternative markers linked to the Phg-2 angular leaf spot resistance locus in common bean using the Phaseolus genes marker database

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a rich source of protein, vitamins, and micronutrients and is an important crop for food security throughout Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Among tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where the majority of beans are grown, yield losses due to the pathogenic fungus Pseudocercospora griseola, causing angular leaf spot (ALS), can be as high as 80%. The strategic use of...

Author(s): Tamara Miller, Paul Gepts, Stephen Kimmo, Esther Arunga, Luseko Amos Chilagane, Susan Nchimbi-Msolla, Annet Namusoke, Annet Namayanja and Yayis Rezene Tedla

June 2018

Studies on styrene concentration in drinking water and hot beverages in some settings

Water bottles and cups composed of polystyrene also contain non-polymerized styrene. Styrene’s toxicological profile is associated with several health issues for humans. Mainly, the central and peripheral nervous systems are highly disturbed by styrene ingestion. Styrene is also considered to be a carcinogenic agent and has been linked to cancer. The HPLC method was validated through prepared QC samples. The HPLC...

Author(s): Naser L. Rezk, Saber M. Eweda, Salma A. Rezk and Sameh Ahmed

June 2018

Microsatellites markers associated with resistance to flower bud thrips in a cowpea F2 population derived from genotypes TVU-123 and WC36

Breeding for resistance to flower bud thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) in cowpea has been hindered by the quantitative nature of resistance. To identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with resistance to flower bud thrips that could be used for marker-assisted breeding, a F2 population was generated from a cross between genotypes TVU-123 (resistant) and WC36 (susceptible). The population was evaluated...

Author(s): Symphorien Agbahoungba, Jeninah Karungi, Kassim Sadik, Paul Gibson, Richard Edema, Achille E. Assogbadjo and Patrick R. Rubaihayo

June 2018

Cost effective medium for in vitro propagation of Tanzanian cassava landraces

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 800 million people in the tropics. However, its production is constrained by an inadequate supply of clean planting materials. Tissue culture carried out in laboratories is one established method for the mass production of clean planting materials. However, the cost of conventional tissue culture is high and the cassava industry would benefit from an...

Author(s): Christina Edward Kidulile, Amos Emitat Alakonya, Joseph Canisius Ndunguru and Elijah Miinda Ateka

June 2018

Morphological variability and molecular characterisation of thirty soybean genotypes using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers

The genetic and morphological diversity of soybean germplasms was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and morphological traits such as plant height, height of cotyledon leaves, basal leaf length, basal leaf width, basal leaf area, terminal leaflets number, terminal leaflet length, terminal leaflet width, terminal leaflet area and basal leaf petiole length. A total of 30 germplasms were...

Author(s): Titilayo Akande, Lucky O. Omoigui and Joseph Ikwebe  

June 2018

Surface plasmon resonance and antimicrobial properties of novel silver nanoparticles prepared from some indigenous plants in Uyo, Nigeria

Synthesis of nanoparticles was done by green method. Aqueous extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Telferia occidentalis and Lasianthera africana were used as the model vegetables. Silver nitrate was used as the silver precursor, while the plant extracts served as the reducing agents and Xanthan gum (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00% w/v) was introduced as stabilizing agents. Twelve batches of silver nanoparticles were synthesized:...

Author(s): Tenderwealth Clement Jackson, Bernard Opatimidi Patani and Ntiido Ndifreke Udosen  

June 2018

Identification and genetic diversity of Jordanian potato soft rot isolates, Pectobacterium carotovorum subspecies carotovorum (DYE 1969)

Bacterial soft rot disease is one of the most important factors affecting potato production in Jordan. Based on biochemical and physiological analyses, Jordanian isolates of soft rot from potato were identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subspecies carotovorum (DYE 1969). Phylogenetic analysis using pmrA gene sequence data showed that isolates from different regions were closely related to each other, whereas little...

Author(s): Ibtihal Abu-Obeid, Hamed Khlaif and Nida Salem  

June 2018

Studies on enhanced African black soap from Theobroma cacao (cocoa) and Elaeis guineensis (palm kernel oil)

The indigenous African organic soap is formed by saponification. Using the local and ancient method, with slight modifications, palm kernel oil (Elaeis guineensis) and the filtrate of burnt cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) were used to prepare African black soap (C11H23COO-K+). The prepared black soap was thereafter divided into five parts. Part A was the control without additives, while parts B, C and D were enhanced...

Author(s): Adebomi A. Ikotun, Esther O. Faboro, Adejoke S. Kolade and Abimbola A. Owoseni

June 2018

Production of single cell protein (SCP) and essentials amino acids from Candida utilis FMJ12 by solid state fermentation using mango waste supplemented with nitrogen sources

In Burkina Faso, deficiency of amino acids in protein is becoming a major healthy public problem. This study was purposed to optimize essentials amino acids in single cell protein (SCP) by supplementing different nitrogen sources during fermentation of mango waste with Candida utilis FJM12. Analytical methods were used to determine biomass yield, chemical composition and amino acids profile of SCP. The principal...

Author(s): Marius Kounbèsiounè SOMDA, Mahamadi NIKIEMA, Ibrahim KEITA, Iliassou MOGMENGA, Sonagnon H. S. KOUHOUNDE, Yerobessor DABIRE, Wahauwouélé H. COULIBALY, Essodolom TAALE and Alfred S.TRAORE  

June 2018

Development and validation of analytical methodology for quantification of total flavonoids of Morus nigra by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry

Morus nigra L. is known in the region of Brazilian São Francisco Valley as "amora-miúra". It is widely used in traditional medicine, mainly in treatment of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular problems, obesity and gout. This study proposed to develop and validate a fast, simple, efficient and low cost analytical method that could quantify total flavonoid content present in crude...

Author(s): Pedrita Alves Sampaio, Hyany Andreysa Pereira Teixeira, Nathália Andrezza Carvalho de Souza, José Marcos Teixeira de Alencar-Filho, Grasielly Rocha Souza, Emanuella Chiara Valença Pereira, Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira-Júnior, Pedro José Rolim-Neto, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, and Larissa Araújo Rolim  

June 2018

Phenotypic characterization and symbiotic effectiveness test of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) rhizobia isolated from Dejen and Aneded Districts, East Gojjam Zone, Amahara Region, Ethiopia

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important leguminous crop grown in different parts of Ethiopia. It is a nutritionally valued and N2-fixing legume which forms a symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium. This study was conducted to characterize and evaluate symbiotic efficacy of chickpea rhizobia isolated from soil samples collected from the study area. Seventeen chickpea rhizobia were isolated by soil host plant trap...

Author(s): Birhan Aynalem, Tadele Temesgen, Yilkal Bezie and Seble W. Yohannis  

May 2018

Screening for total antioxidant activity, flavonoids and phenolics variability in forty-five accessions of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Build-up of free radicals in the human body can cause oxidative stress which may invariably lead to degenerative diseases and eventual death. Antioxidants such as polyphenols and flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables have been shown to protect the body against the damaging effects of these free radicals. Roselle contains high amounts of antioxidants and its leaves are often used for sauces or in herbal preparations...

Author(s): W. Nunekpeku, H. M. Amoatey, S. Agbenyegah, M. Owusu-Ansah, V. Oduro, K. E. Danso, D. K. Asare and E. Achoribo

May 2018

Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing actinomycetes from rhizosphere and agricultural soils

Antibiotics are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms. Actinomycetes are the top producers of antibiotics. The study was designed to isolate and screen antibiotic producing actinomycetes obtained from rhizosphere of plants and agricultural soils. A total of 30 actinomycetes were isolated. Out of the 30 actinomycetes, 18 (60%) showed antimicrobial activities against one of the tested microorganisms of which 9...

Author(s): Atsede Muleta, and Fassil Assefa

May 2018

Efficient plant regeneration protocol for finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] via somatic embryogenesis

In the present study, an efficient protocol for somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was established in six finger millet varieties (GBK-043137, GBK-043128, GBK-043124, GBK-043122, GBK-043094 and GBK-043050). Shoot tips from 3 days in vitro grown plants were inoculated on MS supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D),...

Author(s): Alex Ngetich, Cecilia Mweu, Mathew Ngugi, Asunta Mukami, Henry Ojulong and Wilton Mbinda

May 2018

Marine killer yeast Metschnikowia saccharicola active against pathogenic yeast in crab and an optimization of the toxin production

A marine yeast strain, DD21-2 was isolated from sediments in Dandong, China, which has killer activity against yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata WCY (pathogenic to crab, Portunus trituberculatus). Routine identification, sequence analysis of 26S rDNA and ITS sequencing showed that the strain was M. saccharicola DD21-2, and has not been previously reported as having killer activity against M. bicuspidata WCY. To optimize...

Author(s): Chunming Tan, Lin Wang, Yong Xue, Gang Yu, Shaoling Yang and Shuo Lin

May 2018

Molecular evidence of Helicobacter suis infection in pigs in Nigeria

Helicobacter suis mainly colonizes the stomach of pigs and occasionally infects humans. It is a prevalent cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers in both species. This study was designed to determine the colonization rate of H. suis in the stomach of pigs in Nigeria. Pig slaughter house surveys were conducted and stomach mucosa samples were collected from the fundus of the stomach of a total of 160 pigs in four locations...

Author(s): Oladipo O. Omotosho, Olalekan T. Jeremiah, Benjamin O. Emikpe, Olusegun A. Fagbohun, Olusegun O. Odupitan, Temitope I. Durotoye and Ademola A. Owoade

May 2018

Interrelationships of quantitative traits and genetic variability of Desi type chickpea genotypes as revealed by agro-morphology and inter simple sequence repeat markers

Plant breeders need to stay alert in developing new cultivars on a steady basis to respond to the need of ever increasing human population by exploring either natural variability present in germplasms or generating new variability. Field experiment was conducted at five locations of Western Ethiopia during the 2016/2017 main cropping season to study interrelationships and genetic variability present in Desi type...

Author(s): Biru Alemu, Dagnachew Lule, Kassahun Tesfaye, and Teklehaimanot Haileselassie  

May 2018

Light quality and plant growth regulators influence pigment production in Alternanthera brasiliana calli

Alternanthera brasiliana is a medicinal plant with several popular use and high production of betalains. The aim of the present research was to establish a protocol for callus induction and betalain biosynthesis in A. brasiliana species, as well as to investigate the effect of different qualities of light in increasing betalain in A. brasiliana callus cultures. In this way, the callus initiation and the improvement of...

Author(s): Andressa Reis, Alitcia Moraes Kleinowski, Renata Trevizan Telles, Fátima Rosane Schuquel Klein, Luciano do Amarante and Eugenia Jacira Bolacel Braga  

May 2018

Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers linked to drought tolerant traits in selected Sudanese rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes

Rice growth and productivity are affected by biotic and abiotic stresses; key among them being drought. Conventional breeding for drought tolerance is slowed down by the complex nature of mechanisms underlying this stress although molecular markers offer a promising approach. Plant exposure to drought stress leads to a significant effect in chlorophyll content and reduction in photosynthesis. In this study, 23 Sudanese...

Author(s): Ahmed Bashier, Joel Masanga, Wariara Kariuki and Steven Runo  

May 2018

Effects of ethanolic extract of Waltheria indica aerial parts on some liver and kidney function indices in albino rats

This study evaluated the toxicological effects of chronic treatment with ethanolic extract of Waltheria indica aerial portion on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters in albino rats using standard methods. Rats treated with 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day of the extract showed no behavioural changes. However, there was general reduction of activity in rats given 800 and 1,600 mg/kg bw/day of the extract....

Author(s): Hamidu J. L., Ayo J. O., Adelaiye A. B. and Abubakar M. S.  

May 2018

Presence of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene in cereals and cereal-based products in local markets and supermarkets of Yaoundé, Cameroon

The use and importation of genetically modified (GM) crops and products derived from these crops are regulated by national and international policies, which unfortunately are often not properly implemented in some countries. Given the ongoing globalization of trade and increasing availability of GM plant products, countries like Cameroon with a weak system to regulate the importation of these products face the threat of...

Author(s): Youbouni Gisèle Flodore Ghepdeui, Palmer Masumbe Netongo, Olivia Afa Achonduh-Atijegbe Sarah Riwom Essama and Wilfred Fon Mbacham  

May 2018

Azospirillum spp. potential for maize growth and yield

The importance of biotechnology involved in the availability of nutrients to plants in different production systems is well known. In the search for agricultural sustainability, biological nitrogen fixation process stands out, especially in tropical regions where soil organic matter can be rapidly mineralized. In this aspect, researches have pointed out the potentialities of the use of diazotrophic bacteria, as well as...

Author(s): Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti, Carlos Henrique Caprio, Fábio Luíz Checchio Mingotte and Gustavo Vitti Môro  

May 2018

Propagation of Pecan (Carya illinoensis): A review

The Pecan (Carya illinoensis) is the most important species that belongs to the Carya genus. It is cultivated mainly for its nut, which is rich in oils and proteins, and for its good quality wood. Pecan is conventionally propagated by budding or grafting onto rootstocks obtained by open pollination. However, these techniques are not very efficient due to low propagation rates, poor survival and difficult establishment....

Author(s): Fabrizio Giuseppe Casales, Elmarie Van der Watt and Gesine Maria Coetzer  

May 2018

Development of in vitro propagation protocol for some recalcitrant cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes in Sierra Leone

A study on rapid propagation of cassava through tissue culture was conducted with three elite cassava genotypes: Slicass 6, Slicass 11 and Cocoa from Sierra-Leone. They showed slow growth in Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal medium which was proven to be optimal for a vast number of cassava accessions. Prior to mutation induction, a large population needs to be produced for mutagen susceptibility test and for mutant...

Author(s): Janatu Veronica Sesay, Nicole Gado G. Yamba, Joseeph Sherman-Kamara and Dan David Quee  

May 2018

Genetic diversity and relatedness of oil palm progenies determined by microsatellite and agronomic markers

Genetic diversity in oil palm has been usually determined using agro-morphological markers (traits) before the advent of DNA-based markers including microsatellite markers, which have the advantage of being environmentally independent. The current study aimed to compare genetic diversity and relationships among 10 Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) dura × tenera oil palm progenies using simple...

Author(s): Maxwell N. Okoye, Claude Bakoumé, Michael I. Uguru and Rajinder Singh  

April 2018

Actinomycetes bioactive compounds: Biological control of fungi and phytopathogenic insect

Actinomycetes are aerobic and gram-positive spore forming bacteria. They belong to the order actinomycetales and are characterized by substrates and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant microorganisms in soil. They play important roles in the cycling of organic matter and inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere. Due to the presence of enzymes such as proteases and chitinase,...

Author(s): Edelvio de B. Gomes, Léo Ruben L. Dias and Rita de Cássia M. de Miranda  

April 2018

Expression and purification of human IL-2 protein from Escherichia coli

Human interleukin 2 protein (IL-2) is an important cytokine found to be elevated in several types of cancer. A synthetic DNA sequence of the cDNA of mature IL-2 protein was cloned into the pRSET-B expression vector. The expressed IL-2 protein in Escherichia coli [BL21] was associated with the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs). The effect of different cultivation conditions (temperature,...

Author(s): Ramadan Hassan, Mohammed El-Mowafy and Eman Samy Zaher  

April 2018

Vitamin C, iron and zinc levels of selected African green leafy vegetables at different stages of maturity

Nutrient level at harvest of vegetables is an important aspect in the efforts to combat food and nutrition insecurity in developing countries. However information on the nutrient levels at different maturity stages of most indigenous African green leafy vegetables is scanty. This study was undertaken to determine the levels of vitamin C, iron and zinc in Amaranthus cruentus, Cleome gynandra and Solanum villosum at...

Author(s): Teddy Frederick Mamboleo, John Mbonea Msuya and Akwilina Wendelin Mwanri  

April 2018

Adaptation of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas) (L.) Lam] genotypes in various agro-ecological zones of Malawi

Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas) (L.) Lam] is grown by small holder farmers across a wide range of environments in Malawi. A multi-location trial of eight genotypes for three seasons at six research stations was undertaken using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model analysis to determine the genotypes’ stability and influence of genotype × environment interactions (GEI) on storage...

Author(s): Felistus Chipungu, Wisdom Changadeya, Aggrey Ambali, John Saka, Nzola Mahungu and Jonathan Mkumbira  

April 2018

Assessment of plantain (Musa sapientum L.) accessions genotypic groups relatedness using simple sequence repeats markers

Plantains are important sources of high-calorie energy in Ghana. They are also of great socio-economic importance in the country, and very important sources of rural income. Although several species exist all over the world, plantains belonging to the AAB group are unique to West Africa and Ghanaian collections have unique features and peculiar taste. Morphological and biochemical characterization are the popular...

Author(s): Marian D. Quain, Adelaide Agyeman and Beloved M. Dzomeku  

April 2018

ELISA, RT-PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and sequencing methods for investigating an epidemic FMD virus serotype O outbreaks

This study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of non-structure protein for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and identify FMDV serotypes. A total of 3600 serum samples (1080 buffaloes and 2520 cattle) were collected randomly from different breeds, age, and sex at El Beheira, El Dakahlia, and El Giza. Nonstructure protein of FMDV was detected in 41 of 1080 (3.8%) Buffalo and 185 of 2520 (7.3%) cattle....

Author(s): Halla E. K. El Bahgy and Mahmoud M. A. Moustafa

April 2018

In vitro somatic embryogenesis and regeneration potential of two potato varieties in Uganda

In vitro somatic embryogenesis and regeneration are important techniques for crop improvement and mass propagation. This study was conducted to establish and optimize a regeneration system for agronomically important potato cultivars (‘Victoria’ and ‘Rutuku’) of Solanum tuberosum L. in Uganda. Completely randomized design experiments were set up at Bioscience East and Central Africa (BecA) Tissue...

Author(s): Arinaitwe Abel Byarugaba, Magembe Eric, Barekye Alex and Rob Skilton

April 2018

Enzymatic activity and elicitor of phytoalexins of Lippia sidoides Cham. and endophytic fungi

Secondary metabolites may play a number of roles, among them, is the activation of plant defense mechanisms, such as phytoalexins and the synthesis of antioxidative enzymes. This study aimed to test the eliciting activity of phytoalexins of Lippia sidoides Cham. and six endophytic fungi associated with it and to verify the synthesis of the enzymes, as a response to the antioxidative and antifungal system. The assays...

Author(s): Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira, Ronice Alves Veloso, Gil Rodrigues dos Santos, Laiza Priscila dos Santos, Tatiani Pereira de Souza Ferreira, Alessandra Macedo Barros, Richard Dias Possel and Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

April 2018

Rice (Oryza sativa) breeding strategies for grain biofortification

Biofortification is a process in which plant species are improved in order to raise the nutritional content of the product consumed. The following are some of the main techniques that can be introduced in plant breeding programs in order to improve the nutritional quality of the food to be produced. The rice breeding for higher Fe and Zn content in grain, rice breeding for higher β-carotene content in the grain,...

Author(s): Fábio Luíz Checchio Mingotte, Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti, Sandra Helena Unêda Trevisoli, Leandro Borges Lemos and Domingos Fornasieri Filho

April 2018

Preventive effect of black rice antioxidant extract on oxidative stress induced by ethyl alcohol

The present study investigated the black rice ethanolic extract (BREE) protective effect as natural antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by ethyl alcoholic (EA) in male rats. BREE flavonoids and phenols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The study was conducted on 40 male Wistar rats weighing 170±2 g, the animals divided into 4 equal groups. The first group was given...

Author(s): Suhailah S. Al-Jameel and Soheir N. Abd El-Rahman,  

April 2018

Production and purification of extracellular pullulanase by Klebsilla aerogenes NCIM 2239

The present study was carried out to optimize the production of pullulanase from Klebsilla aerogenes NCIM 2239, a new strain of the bacterium. The organism was screened for its ability to synthesize and secrete extracellular pullulanase, by analysis of pullulan degrading activity. Environmental (pH and temperature) and nutritional (carbon and nitrogen) factors influencing growth and product formation were optimized...

Author(s): N. Prabhu, R. Uma Maheswari, M. Vijay Pradhap Singh, S. Karunakaran, C. Kaliappan and T. Gajendran  

April 2018

Heterosis, heterobeltiosis, narrow-sense and broad-sense heritabilities for Phytophthora megakarya tolerance in two populations of Theobroma cacao L.

A 2x2 diallel mating design was set up to estimate quantitative genetic parameters after leaf artificial inoculation tests in nursery and field for three consecutive years. F12 and F40 families of two reciprocal crosses viz., F12: ♀SCA12 × ♂ICS40 and F40: ♀ICS40 × ♂SCA12 were used to study heterosis (mid-parent), heterobeltiosis (better-parent), heritability (narrow-sense and broad-sense) and to quantify...

Author(s): Jude N. MANGA, Martine L. ONDOBO, Pierre O. EFFA, Jules C. K. DJOKO, and Pierre F. DJOCGOUE,  

March 2018

Energy balance of elephant grass biomass for power generation by direct biomass combustion

In Brazil, elephant grass has been used for thermal energy production, due to the high productivity, energy efficiency, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and biomass quality for energy generation by direct burning. The use of biomass depends mainly on the energy balance and biomass characteristics for energy production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomass of dry matter yield, qualitative biomass variables...

Author(s): Morais R. F., Morais C. S. B., de Morais L. F. and Almeida J. C. C.

March 2018

Development of liquid inoculants for strains of Rhizobium tropici group using response surface methodology

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume for human consumption in many countries of South and Central America, Asia and Africa. The crop can benefit from the biological nitrogen fixation process, especially when inoculated with elite rhizobial strains. Strains belonging to the “Rhizobium tropici group” are preferred because they show high tolerance to abiotic stresses, but their...

Author(s): Jackson Seiti Gundi,, Mariana Sanches Santos, André Luiz Martinez Oliveira, Marco Antonio Nogueira and Mariangela Hungria,

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