African Journal of Agricultural Research
Subscribe to AJAR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 0B529D056283

Vol.13(11), pp. 518-525 , March 2018
ISSN: 1991-637X

 Total Views: 0
 Downloaded: 0

Full Length Research Paper

Precocious screening tests of the resistance of two varieties of cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.) from combinations of fertilizers against Phytophthora megakarya (Brasier and Griffin) in nursery

Pelagie Djenatou
  • Pelagie Djenatou
  • Maroua Regional Agricultural Research Center (CRRA-M), P. O. Box 33, Maroua, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Yves Hernandez Tchetchoua
  • Yves Hernandez Tchetchoua
  • Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P. O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Philippe Kosma
  • Philippe Kosma
  • Department of Agriculture, Livestock and By-Products, The Higher Institute of the Sahel, University of Maroua, P. O. Box 46 Maroua, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Eddy Leonard Ngonkeu Magaptcheu
  • Eddy Leonard Ngonkeu Magaptcheu
  • Regional Laboratory of Biological Control and Apply Microbiology, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), P. O. Box 2067, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar

 Received: 21 June 2017  Accepted: 19 July 2017  Published: 15 March 2018

Copyright © 2018 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

Experiments were conducted to appreciate the resistance level of cocoa seedlings aged three months from combinations of fertilizers against Phytophthora megakarya based on artificial leaf disk inoculation test. The two cocoa varieties involved were: Tafo 79/501 (V1) and SNK 13 (V2). For each variety, 11 treatments with three replicates were used on 33 randomly-selected plants. These include Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (M), Trichoderma asperellum strain PR11 (T), Organic Fertilizer Gro-wild (O), Chemical fertilizers (NPK), the following combinations (TO), (MT), (MO), (MOT), (MOTNPK) as well as a negative control made by original substrate only (T-) and sterile control with sterilized substrate (TS). Results show that the resistance level of cocoa seedlings in nursery to P. megakarya varied with the cocoa variety and for a given variety with the fertilizer. Fertilizers were classified into four categories according to the variation of the infection severity index from 0 (V1MOT) to 4.72 (V1TS) and from 1.27 (V2MOT) to 4.86 (V2T-). The most efficient treatment for both V1 and V2 was MOT that allowed a dualistic action between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and T. asperellum in the presence of organic fertilizer Gro-Wild.

Key words: Cocoa, Phytophthora megakarya, leaf disk, infection severity index, resistance.


Akrofi AY (2015). Phytophthora megakarya: A review on its status as a pathogen on Cacao in West Africa. Afr. Crop Sci. J. 23:67-87.


Assoumou J (1997). L'économie du cacao. Delarges, Paris, France.


Azo'o EM, Tchuenguem FFN, Messi J (2011). Influence of the foraging entomofaune on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seed yields. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 13:761-765.


Azo'o EM, Madi A, Tchuenguem FFN, Messi J (2012). The importance of a single floral visit of Eucara macrognatha and Tetralonia fraterna (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the pollination and the yields of Abelmoschus esculentus in Maroua, Cameroon. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 7(18):2853-2857.


Azo'o EM, Djenatou P, Messi J 2(017). Repercussions of Eucara macrognatha (Hymenoptera: Apidae) duration of visit on the pollination rate and yields of Abelmoschus esculentus. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 32(3):5203-5211.


Bilir N, Kang KS, Zang D, Lindgren D (2004). Fertility variation and status number between a base population and a seed orchard of Pinus brutia. Silvae Genet. 53:161-163.


Blaha G, Lotodé R (1976). Un critère primordial de sélection du cacaoyer au Cameroun : la résistance à la pourriture brune des cabosses. Café Cacao Thé. 20(2):97-116.


Cantin S (2001). Recherche sur les avantages à utiliser le compost. Dossier CRIQ 640-PE27158 (R1) Rapport final, Sainte-FOY, Québec, Canada.


Cercioglu M, Bilir N (2016). Seed source effect on quality and morphology of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) seedlings. Reforesta 2:1-5.


Cetinkaya D, Cercioglu M (2017). Variation in Seed Characteristic among Anatolian Black Pine Populations. Int. J. Res. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol. 5:690-693.


De Silguy C (1997). Agriculture biologique, des techniques efficaces et peu polluantes. Terre vivante (eds), Paris, France.


Dilaver M, Seyedi N, Bilir N (2015). Seedling quality and morphology in seed sources and seedling type of Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.). World J. Agric. Res. 3:83-85.


Duponnois R, Hafidi M, Wahbi S, Sanon A, Galiana A, Baudoin E, Sanguin H, Bâ AM, Prin Y, Bally R (2012). La symbiose mycorhizienne et la fertilité des sols dans les zones arides : un outil de lutte biologique sous-exploité dans la gestion des terres de la zone-saharienne. Foxit reader (eds), Montpellier, France.


Harley JL, Smith SE (1983). Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. London, U.K., Academic Press.


Harman GE (2008). Overview of mechanism and uses of Trichoderma spp. Phytopathology 96:190-194.


Harrier LA, Watson CA (2004). The potential role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the bioprotection of plants against soil-borne pathogens in organic and/or other sustainable farming systems. Pest Man. Sci. 60:149-157.


ICCO (2011). Quarterly Bulletin of Cacao statistics. 



Jemo M, Abaidoo RC, Nolte C, Horse WJ (2007). Aluminum resistance of cowpea as affected by Phosphorus-deficiency stress. J. Plant Physiol. 164:442-451.


Klein AM, Vaissière BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunnigham SA, Kremen C, Tscharntke T (2007). Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proc. Royal Soc. 274(2):303-313.


Kouakou K, Kébé B, Kouassi N, Anno AP, Aké S, Muller E (2011). Impact de la maladie virale du swollen shoot du cacaoyer sur la production du cacao en milieu paysan à Bazré. J. Appl. Biosc. 34:2947-2957.


Lass T (2004). Balancing cacao production and consumption. In: Flood J., Murphy R. (eds), Cacao Futures, a Source Book of Some Important Issues Facing the Cacao Industry. Chinchina (Colombia), CABI-FEDERACAFE, USDA pp. 8-5.


Létouzey R (1968). Etude Phytogéographique du Cameroun. Paul le Chevalier (ed.), Paris V, Paris, France.


Martinez C, Blanc F, Le Claire E, Besnard O, Nicole M, Baccou JC (2001). Salicylic acid and Ethylen pathways are differentially activated in melon cotyledons by active or heat-denatured cellulase from Trychoderma longibranchiatum. Plant Physiol. 127:334-344.


Mossu G (1990). Le cacaoyer. Technicien d'Agriculture tropicale, Paris, France.


Ndoumbé-Nkeng M, Cilas C, Nyemb E, Nyassé S, Bieysse D, Flori A, Sache I (2004). Impact of removing disease pods on cacao black pod caused by Phythophtora megakarya and on cacao production in Cameroon. Crop Prot. 23:415-424.


Nwaga D, Fankem H, Essono OG, Ngo Nkot L, Randrianangaly JS (2007). Pseudomonads and Symbiotic micro-organisms as biocontrol agents against fungal disease caused by Phytium aphanidermatum. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 6:190-197.


Nwaga D, Jansa J, Abossolo AM, Frossard E (2010). The potential of soil beneficial micro-organisms for slash-and-burn agriculture. In: Dion P. (ed.) Soil Biology and Agriculture in the tropics, Soil Biology 21. Berlin Heidelberg, Springer, Germany pp. 85-107.


Nyassé S, Cilas C, Herail C, Blaha G (1995). Leaf inoculation as an early screening test for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) resistance to Phythophtora black pod disease. Crop Prot. 14:657-663.


Nyassé S, Grivet L, Risterucci AM, Blaha G, Berry D, Lanaud C (1999). Diversity of Phytophthora megakarya in Central and West Africa revealed by isozyme and RAPD markers. Mycol. Res. 103:1225-1234.


Paulin D, Ducamp M, Lachenaud P (2008). New sources of resistance to Phythophtora megakarya identified in wild cocoa tree populations of French Guiana. Crop Prot. 27:1143-1147.


Paulitz TC, Belanger RR (2001). Biological control in green house system. An. Rev. Phytopathol. 39:103-133.


Rousseau A, Benhamou N, Chet I, Piché Y (1996). Mycoparasitism of the extrametrical phase of Glomus intraradicesby Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathology 86:434-443.


Sikes BA, Cottenie K, Klironomos JN (2009). Plant and fungal identify determine pathogen protection of plant roots by Arbuscular mycorrhizas. J. Ecol. 97:1274-1280.


Tahi GM, Kébé BI, Sangaré A, Mondeil F, Cilas C, Eskes AB (2006). Foliar resistance of cacao (Theobroma cacao) to Phytophthora palmivora as an indicator of pod resistance in the field: interaction of cacao genotype, leaf age and duration of incubation. Plant Pathol. 55:776-782.


Tebes NT, Seyedi N, Bilir N (2015). Morphological characteristics and quality in Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana) seedlings. Int. J. Latest Res. Sci. Technol. 4:7-9.


Tchameni SL, Ngonkeu MEL, Begoudé BAD, Wakam Nana L, Fokom R, Owona AD, Mbarga JB, Tchana T, Tondje PR, Etoa FX, Kuaté J (2011). Effect of Trichoderma asperellum and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on cacao growth and resistance against black pod disease. Crop Prot. 30:1321-1327.


Tchameni NS, Nwaga D, Nana WL, Ngonkeu MEL, Fokom L, Kuaté J, Etoa FX (2012).Growth Enhancement, Amino Acid Synthesis and Reduction in Susceptibility towards Phytophthora megakarya by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation in Cacao Plants. J. Phytopatol. 160:220-228.


Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S (2002). Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671-677.


Tondje PR, Roberts DP, Bon MC, Widmer T, Samuels GJ, Ismaiel A, Begoude AD, Tchana T, Nyemb-Tshomb E, Ndoumbé-Nkeng M, Bateman RP, Fontem D, Hebbar KP (2007). Isolation and identification of mycoparasitic isolates of Trichoderma asperellum with potential for suppression of black pod diseases of cacao in Cameroon. Biol. Control. 43:202-212.


Vinale F, Sivasithamparam K, Ghisalberti LE, Marra R, Woo LS, Lorito M (2008). Trichoderma-plant-pathogen interactions. Soil Biol. Biochem. 40:1-10.


Yazici N (2010). Determination of water consumption of some coniferous seedlings and its relation with meteorological parameters, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Suleyman Demirel University, PhD. Thesis, Isparta, Turkey.


Yilmazer C, Bilir N (2016). Effect of Seedling Type in Morphology and Quality of Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) Seedlings. IJSRST 2(5):237-240.


APA Djenatou, P., Tchétchoua, Y. H., Kosma, P., & Magaptcheu, E. L. N. (2018). Precocious screening tests of the resistance of two varieties of cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.) from combinations of fertilizers against Phytophthora megakarya (Brasier and Griffin) in nursery. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 13(11), 518-525.
Chicago P&elagie Djenatou, Yves Hernandez Tch&etchoua, Philippe Kosma and Eddy L&eonard Ngonkeu Magaptcheu,  . "Precocious screening tests of the resistance of two varieties of cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.) from combinations of fertilizers against Phytophthora megakarya (Brasier and Griffin) in nursery." African Journal of Agricultural Research 13, no. 11 (2018): 518-525.
MLA Peacute;lagie Djenatou, et al. "Precocious screening tests of the resistance of two varieties of cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.) from combinations of fertilizers against Phytophthora megakarya (Brasier and Griffin) in nursery." African Journal of Agricultural Research 13.11 (2018): 518-525.

Subscription Form