African Journal of Business Management
Subscribe to AJBM
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 83ECA9615395

Vol.7(19), pp. 1903-1913 , May 2013
DOI: 10.5897/AJBM10.1234
ISSN: 1993-8233

Full Length Research Paper

Head of household characteristics and family economic status (FES) among Kerman households, Iran

Mehdi Yadollahi1,2*, Laily Haj Paim2 and Hamid Taboli3

1Department of Management, Payam-e Noor University, (PNU), Sirjan, I.R.Iran.

2Department of Resources Management and Consumer Studies, Putra University, Malaysia.

3Department of Management, Payam-e Noor University, (PNU), Kerman, I.R.Iran.



 Accepted: 24 February 2011  Published: 21 May 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

Families are economically successful when they can meet their needs, provide a stronger and more protected financial future, and can move stably towards attaining the family vision. Economic status represents the economic capacity of families to meet their material and non-material needs. The aim of this article is to determine the effect of demography variables that is, age, gender, level of education, and occupation, on family economic status (FES). FES included three dimensions (income, expenditure, and ownership of physical asset). In this study, questionnaires were used as a survey instruments; the researcher selected 390 households, based on Kraji and Morgan table. Data collection was through face-to-face interviews to obtain information from the heads of households. In this research, Pearson product-moment correlation, Chi-square, Spearman rho, and independent sample t-test were used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that the demography variables have effect on FES, and the dimensions, but the effect was different in variables. It may be interesting for future studies to look at the effect of other elements on FES.


Key words: Demographic variables, income, expenditure, ownership of physical asset.

Ando A, Modigliani F (1963 ) "The Life Cycle Hypothesis of Saving: Aggregate Implications and Tests", Am. Econ. Rev. 53(1):55-84.
Alam G (2009a). Can governance and regulatory control ensure private higher education as business or public goods in Bangladesh? Afr. J. Bus. Manage. 3(12):890-906.
Alam G (2009b). The role of science and technology education at network age population for sustainable development of Bangladesh through human resource advancement. Sci. Res. Essays 4(11):1260-1270.
Alam G, Hoque K (2010). Who gains from "Brain and Body Drain" Business -Developing/developed world or individuals: A comparative study between skilled and semi/unskilled emigrants. Afr. J. Bus. Manage. 4(4):534-548.
Alam G, Hoque K, Khalifa M, Siraj S, Ghani M (2009). The role of agriculture education and training on agriculture economics and national development of Bangladesh. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 4(12):1334-1350.
Alam G, Hoque K, Oloruntegbe K (2010). Quest for a better operation system in Education: Privatization, Teacher Educationalization or Voucherilization: glimpsing from consumer and product perspectives. Afr. J. Bus. Manage. 4(6):1202-1214.
Aydogan U (2008). Household Composition and Housing Expenditures in Rental-Occupied and Owner-Occupied Markets. Family Consum. Sci. Res. J. 36(3):189-207.
Becker GS (1962). Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis. J. Politic. Econ. 70(5):9-49.
Blaug M (1974). Education and the Employment Problem in Developing Countries: ILO, Geneva.
Blomqvist NS (1981). A Comparison of Distributions of Annual and Lifetime Income: Sweden around 1979. Rev. Income Wealth, 27(1): 243-264.
Brines J, Joyner K (1999). The ties that bind: Principles of cohesion in cohabitation and marriage. Am. Sociol. Rev. 64:333-355.
Bryant FB, Yarnold PR (1990). The impact of Type A Behavior on subjective life quality: Bad for the heart, good for the soul? J. Soc. Behav. Pers. 5:369-404.
Bryman A, Bell E (2003). Bussiness research methods: Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, US (2002). Regional spending patterns in the U.S. and metropolitan areas in the Midwest, 2001-2002. Retrieved Jaunary 16, 2010, from r07/cexmwst.htm.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. (2004). Regional spending patterns in the U.S. and metropolitan areas in the Midwest, 2003-2004. Retrieved January 16, 2010, from
Dardis R, Derrick F, Lehfeld A (1981a). Clothing demand in the United States: A cross-sectional analysis. Home Econ. Res. J. 10:212-222.
Dardis R, Derrick F, Lehfeld A (1981b). Clothing in the United States: A cross-sectional analysis. Home Econ. Res. J. 21(102):222.
Deaton A, Muellbauer J (1980). Economics and Consumer Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Du Rietz G (1977). Determinants of housing demand - analysis of census data for the county of Stockholm, 1970 Scandinavian J. Econ. 79:312-325.
Duncan G, Boisjoly J, Smeeding T (1996). Economic mobility of young workers in the 1970s and 1980s. Demography 33:497-509.
Engel E (1857). Die Produktions- und ConsumtionsverhÄaltnisse des KÄonigreichs Sachsen, reprinted with Engel. Anlage 1:1-54.
Falkingham J, Klytchnikova I (2006). The Profile of Poverty Tajikistan: an update 1999 to 2003' S3RI Applications and Policy Working Papers A06/02: University of Southampton.
Feldman JJ, Makuc DM, Kleinman JC, Cornoni-Huntley J (1989). National trends in educational differentials in mortality. Am. J. Epidemiol. 129(5):919-933.
Fowler FJ (1988). Survey Research Methods. Newbury Park: CA:Sage.
Friedman (1957). A theory of the consumption function. New Jersey Princeton University Press.
Frisbee WR (1985). Economic analysis of household clothing expenditures. Can. Home Econ. J. 35:201-206.
Green HAJ (1978). Consumer Theory. New York: Academic Press.
Grilliches Z (1978). Notes on the Role of Education in Production Functions and Growth Accounting," Education, Income and Human Capital. NBER Studies in Income and Wealth 35:71-87.
Hager CJ, Bryant WK (1977). Clothing expenditures of low income rural families. J. Consum. Affairs 11:127-132.
Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL (2006). Multivariate data analysis: Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall.
Hansen JL, Formby JP, Smith WJ (1998). Estimating the income elasticity of demand for housing: A comparison of traditional and Lorenz-concentration curve methodologies. J. Hous. Econ. 7(4):328-342.
Isadore N, Carolyn RB (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative Research Methodology Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Jalal Maab M (2008). Kerman Statistical year book (1st ed.): Kerman Planning and Management Organization.
Jamison DT, Lau LJ (1982). Farmer Education and Farm Efficiency. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Jane F, Angela B. (2009). Gender and Poverty: How Misleading is the Unitary Model of Household Resources? An Illustration from Tajikistan. Global Social Policy 9(1):43-62.
Miech RA, Hauser RM (2001). Socioeconomic status and health at midlife: A comparison of educational attainment with occupation-based indicators. Ann. Epidemiol. 11(2):75-84.
Mincer J (1974). Schooling, experience, and earnings. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Morgan JN, Duncan GJ (1982). Making your choices count: Economic principles for everyday decisions: Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Morris L (1990). The Workings of the Household. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Muller A (2002). Education, income inequality, and mortality: A multiple regression analysis. Br. Med. J. 324(7328):23-25.
Phlips L (1983). Applied Consumption Analysis (rev. ed.). New York: North Holland.
Powell MA, Parcel TL (1997). Effects of family structure on the earnings attainment process: Differences by gender. J. Marriage Fam. 59:419-433.
Prais SJ, Houthakker HS (1971). The Analysis of Family Budgets (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: The University Press.
Psacharopoulos G (1973). Returns to Education. San Fransisco: Jossey Bess-Elsevier.
Psacharopoulos G (1985). Returns of Education: A Further International Update and Implication. J. Hum. Resour. 20(4):583-601.
Rice A, Tucker S (1986). Family life management: New York: Macmillan.
Rosen S (1985). Human Capital. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Saifollahi M (2008). Kerman municipality statistic and information: Kerman News.
Schultz TP (1982). Notes on the estimation of migration functions. In: Sabot R (Ed.). Migration and the labour force. Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press.
Schultz TW (1961). Investment in human capital. Am. Econ. Rev. 51:1-17.
Schultz TW (1988). Education Investment and Returns," Chenery & Srinivasan (eds.). In Handbook of Development Economics (Vol. 1). North Holland.
Sekaran U (2001). Research method of business: a skill-building approach New York: John Wiley and Son, Inc.
Sen B, Begum S (1998). Methodology for identifying the poorest at local level, WHO, Geneva (1998) Macroeconomics: Health and Development Series no. 27.
Tesfa GG, Luther GT (2003). Research Methods and communication in the Social Science: Greenwood Publishing Group.
The World Bank, B (1998). From counting the poor to making the poor count. Washington: The World Bank.
Tilak JBG (2002). Determinants of Household Expenditure on Education in Rural India. In. New Delhi: National Council of Applied Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 88.
Todaro M (1976). Internal migration in developing countries. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office.
Trease J (1993). Money in the bank: Transaction costs and the economic organization of marriage. Amer. Sociol. Rev. 58:723-734.
Vogler C (2005). Cohabiting couples: Rethinking money in the household at the beginning of the twenty first century. Sociol. Rev. 53:1-29.
Wagner J, Hanna S (1983). The effectiveness of family life cycle variables in consumer expenditure research. J. Consum. Res. 10:281-291.
Wilkanson RK, Law IA (1978). A model of tenure determination in a local housing market. Appl. Econ. 10:173-182.


APA (2013). Head of household characteristics and family economic status (FES) among Kerman households, Iran. African Journal of Business Management, 7(19), 1903-1913.
Chicago Mehdi Yadollahi, Laily Haj Paim and Hamid Taboli. "Head of household characteristics and family economic status (FES) among Kerman households, Iran." African Journal of Business Management 7, no. 19 (2013): 1903-1913.
MLA Mehdi Yadollahi, Laily Haj Paim and Hamid Taboli. "Head of household characteristics and family economic status (FES) among Kerman households, Iran." African Journal of Business Management 7.19 (2013): 1903-1913.
DOI 10.5897/AJBM10.1234

Subscription Form