African Journal of Business Management
Subscribe to AJBM
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - DE7DF9265835


Vol.11(17), pp. 446-455 , September 2017
DOI: 10.5897/AJBM2017.8363
ISSN: 1993-8233



Full Length Research Paper

How do nurses perceive their cultural diversity? An exploratory case study



Mohamed Mousa
  • Mohamed Mousa
  • Estonian Business School, Estonia.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 03 June 2017  Accepted: 18 July 2017  Published: 14 September 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Due to its effect on both individual outcomes like job mobility, job satisfaction, job involvement and fair remuneration on the one hand and organizational outcomes like employees’ attendance, turnover, cynicism and performance on the other, diversity has become a rising trend more than ever before. The concept is no longer limited to Western countries but has become popular in many parts of the world. This study focuses only on Kasr El Eini hospital and in an attempt to investigate how nurses perceive their diversity. 25 semi- structured interviews were conducted, and the findings reflect that nurses at Kasr El Eini hospital, like many other classes of Egyptian society, struggle in a state of division and lack the value of inclusion in their workplace. Moreover, distributive justice was perceived with doubt by nurses there. The study ends with the recommendation that managers at Kasr El Eini hospital establish a professional identity for the hospital in which the concept “good colleague” should be utilized. Furthermore, paying attention to both inclusion and justice is also a needed mechanism there.

Key words: Diversity, diversity management, affirmative action, in- out group differentiation, inclusion, justice, Egypt.

Agocs C, Burr C (1996). Employment equity, affirmative action and managing diversity: assessing the differences. Int. J. Manpower 17(4/5):30-45.
Crossref

 

Alas R, Mousa M (2016). Cultural diversity and business hospital' curricula: a case from Egypt. Probl. Persp. Manage. 14(2):130-136.
Crossref

 

Ashikali T, Groeneveld S (2015). Diversity management for all? An empirical analysis of diversity management outcomes across groups. Pers. Rev. 44(5):775-780.
Crossref

 

Barrett DJ (2002). Change Communication: Using Strategic Employee Communication to Facilitate Major Change. Corp. Commun. 7(4):219-231.
Crossref

 

Baxter P, Jack S (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: study design and implementation for novice researchers. Qual. Report 13(4):544-559.

 

Breakwell GM (1993). Social representations and social identity. Papers Soc. Rep. 2(3):198-217.

 

Brown R, Charnsangavej T, Kenough KA, Newan ML, Rentfrow P (2000). Putting the affirm into affirmative action: preferential selection and academic performance. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 79(5):736-747.
Crossref

 

Caiazza R, Volpe T (2015). Interaction despite of diversity: is it possible. J. Manage.Dev. 34(6):743-750.
https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-10-2013-0131

 

Cox T (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations: theory, research and practice. San Francisco: Berrettkoehler.

 

Cox T Jr. (1991). "The multicultural organization", The executive 5(2):34-47.
Crossref

 

Cropanzano R, Mitchell M (2005). Social exchange theory: an interdisplinary review. J. Manage. 31(6):874-900.
Crossref

 

Davis P (2005). Enhancing multicultural harmony: ten actions for managers. Nursing management 26(7):32,32D-32F, 32H

 

Devine F, Baum T, Hearns N, Devine A (2007). Managing cultural diversity: opportunities and challenges for Northern Ireland hoteliers. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. 19(2):120-132.
Crossref

 

Dogra N (2001). The development and evaluation of a programme to teach cultural diversity to medical undergraduate students. Med. Educ. 35:232-241.
Crossref

 

Fao UG, Fao EB (1974). Societal structure of the minds. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.

 

Hassi A, Foutouh N, Ramid S (2015). Employee perception of diversity in Morocco: Empirical insights. J. Global Resp. 6(1):4-18.
Crossref

 

Heuberger B, Gerber D, Anderson R (2010). Strength through Cultural Diversity: Developing and Teaching a Diversity Course. Coll. Teach. 47(3):107-113.
Crossref

 

Hofstede G, Hofstede GJ (2005). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. McGraw Hill.

 

Hogg MA, Abrams D (1993). Towards a single- process uncertainty- reduction model of social motivation in groups. In: M. A. Hogg & D. Abrams (Eds.), Group motivation: social psychological perspectives. Hemel Hempstead, England: Harvester Wheatsheaf. pp. 173-190

 

Hornsey M, Hogg, MA (2000). Assimilation and diversity: an integrative model of subgroup relations, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 4(2):143-156.
Crossref

 

Hubbard EE (2011). The diversity scorecard: evaluating the impact of diversity on organizational performance (improving human performance), Burlington, VT: Butterworth- Heinemann.

 

Humphrey N, Bartolo P, Ale P, Calleja C, Hofsaess T, Janikofa V, Lous M, Vilkiene V, Westo G (2006). Understanding and Responding to diversity in the primary classroom: an international study. Eur. J. Teach. Educ. 29(3):305-313.
Crossref

 

Ihantola EM, Kihn LA (2011). Threats to validity and reliability in mixed methods accounting research. Qual. Res. Account. Manage. 8(1):39-58.
Crossref

 

Information about Kasr El Eini hospital. 

View

 

Information about the physicians in Kasr El Eini. 

View

 

Jain H (1998). Efficiency and equity in employment- equity/ affirmative action program in Canada, USA, UK, South Africa, Malaysia and India in developing competitiveness and social justice. 11th world congress proceedings, Bologne.

 

Johnston W, Packer A (1987). Workforce 2000: work and workers in the 21st century, Hudson Institute, Indiana Polis, IN.

 

King E, Gulick L, Avery D (2010). The divide between diversity training and diversity education: integrating best practices. J. Manage. Educ. 34(6):891-906.
Crossref

 

Kundu SC (2001). Managing Cross- Cultural Diversity: A challenge for present and future organizations. Delhi Bus. Rev. 2(2):1-8.

 

Lillis A (2006). Reliability and validity in field study research in Hoque, Z, (Ed.), Methodological issues in accounting research: theory and methods. Piramus, London. pp. 461-475.

 

Loden M, Rosener JB (1991). Workforce America! Managing employee diversity as a vital resource. Illinois: Business one Irwin.

 

Mazur B, Bialostocka P (2010). Cultural diversity in organizational theory and practice. J. Intercult. Manage. 2 (2):5-15.

 

Morrison M, Lumby J, Sood K (2006). Diversity and diversity management: Messages from recent research. Educ. Manage. Adm. Lead. 34(3):227-295.
Crossref

 

Mousa M, Abdelgaffar H (2017). A float in uncertainty and cynicism: an experience from Egypt. J. Commerce Manage. Thought 8:3. 
Crossref

 

Mousa M, Alas R (2016a). Organizational culture and workplace spirituality. Arab. J. Bus. Manage. Rev. 6(3):1-7.

 

Mousa M, Alas R (2016b). Uncertainty and teachers' organizational commitment in Egyptian Public Schools. Eur. J. Bus. Manage. 8(20):38-47.

 

Mousa M, Alas R (2016c). Cultural diversity and organizational commitment: A study on Teachers of primary public schools in Menoufia (Egypt). Int. Bus. Res. 9 (7):154-173.
Crossref

 

Nishii L (2013). The benefits of climate for inclusion for gender diverse groups, Acad. Manage. J. 56(6):1754-1774.
Crossref

 

O'Reilly CA III, Williams KY, Barsade W (1998). Group demography and innovation: Does diversity help? In: Neale, M.A., Mannix, E.A. and Gruenfeld D. (ed.), Research on managing groups and teams. Stamford, CT: JAI Press Inc.1:183-207.

 

Onwuebuzie AJ, Johnson RB (2006). The validity issue in mixed research. Res. Schools 13(1):48-63.

 

Onwuegbuzie AJ, Johnson RB, Collins KMT (2011). Assessing legitimation in mixed research: a new framework. Qual Quant. 45:1253-1271.
Crossref

 

Pless N, Maak T (2004). Building an inclusive diversity culture: principles, processes and practice. J. Bus. Ethics 54(2):129-147.
Crossref

 

Rijamampianina R, Carmicheal T (2005). A pragmatic and holistic approach to managing diversity. Problems Perspect. Manage. 1: 109-117.

 

Rousseau V, Salek S, Aube C, Morin EM (2009). Distributive justice, procedural justice and psychological distress: the moderating effect of coworker support and work autonomy. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 14(3):305-317.
Crossref

 

Ryan B, Scapens RW, Theobald M (2002). Research Methods and Methodology in Finance & Accounting, 2nd edition. Thomson, London.

 

Schaafsma J (2008). Interethnic relations at work: examining ethnic minority and majority members' experiences in the Netherlands. Int. J. Intercult. Relat. 32:453-465.
Crossref

 

Shore LM, Randel AE, Chung BG, Dean MA, Ehrhart KH, Singh G (2011). Inclusion and diversity in work groups: a review and model for future research. J. Manage. 37(4):1262-1289.
Crossref

 

Siebers H (2009a). (Post) bureaucratic organizational practices and the production of racioethnic inequality at work. J. Manage. Organ. 15(1):62-81.
Crossref

 

Siebers H (2009b). Struggle for recognition: The politics of racioethnic identity among Dutch national tax administrators. Scand. J. Manage. 25:73-84.
Crossref

 

Singal M (2014). The business case for diversity management in the hospitality industry, Int. J. Hospitality Manage. 40:10-19.
Crossref

 

Tajfel H (1978). Differentiation between social groups. London: Academic Press.

 

Tereza M, Fleury L (1999). The management of cultural diversity: lessons from Brazilian companies. Ind. Manage. Data Syst. 99(3):109-114.
Crossref

 

Tsui A, Egan T, O'Reilly C (1992). Being different: relational demography and organizational attachment. Admin. Sci. Qtly. 37:549-579.
Crossref

 

UN Report (2007). Rural Women Face Problems Of Discrimination And Manifold Disadvantages. Third Committee. 11th & 12th Meetings (AM & PM). 

View

 

Vuuren H, Westhuizen P, Walt V (2012). The management of diversity in hospital- A balancing Act. Int. J. Educ. Dev. 32, 155-162.
Crossref

 

Wrench J (2005). Diversity management can be bad for you. Race Class 46(3):73-84.
Crossref

 

Yin RK (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 

Zanoni P, Janssens M, Benschop Y, Nkomo S (2009). Unpacking diversity, grasping inequality: rethinking difference through critical perspective. Organization 17(1):9-29.
Crossref

 


APA Mousa, M. (2017). How do nurses perceive their cultural diversity? An exploratory case study. African Journal of Business Management, 11(17), 446-455.
Chicago Mohamed Mousa. "How do nurses perceive their cultural diversity? An exploratory case study." African Journal of Business Management 11, no. 17 (2017): 446-455.
MLA Mohamed Mousa. "How do nurses perceive their cultural diversity? An exploratory case study." African Journal of Business Management 11.17 (2017): 446-455.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJBM2017.8363
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/AJBM/article-abstract/DE7DF9265835

Subscription Form