African Journal of Biochemistry Research
Subscribe to AJBR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 48ABB2511691

Vol.7(9), pp. 165-173 , October 2013

ISSN: 1996-0778

 Total Views: 0
 Downloaded: 0

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of combined use of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina extract on the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme, hypolipidemic and antioxidant parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Abdulazeez Mansurah A.1,2, Ibrahim Kassim1, Bulus Kenpia1, Babvoshia Hope B.1 and Abdullahi, Yusuf1


1Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

2Natural Product Research and Development Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.

Email: [email protected]

 Accepted: 11 September 2013  Published: 31 October 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


This study was aimed at investigating the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect, hypolidemic and antioxidant properties of combined extract of Occimum gratissimum andVernonia amygdalina in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty (30) apparently healthy male Wistar rats were grouped into: control, diabetic, diabetic + insulin, diabetic + 100 mg/kg and diabetic + 250 mg/kg extract groups. All rats except those in the control group were made diabetic using a single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Administration of extract began four days after induction of diabetes and lasted for four weeks. Results show a significant (P<0.05) increase in serum and liver triacyglycerol, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels upon induction of diabetes, which reduced significantly (P<0.05) in rats given insulin and the extract. HDL-C levels remained unchanged in both liver and serum of diabetic rats when compared to control rats. The serum levels of sulfuroxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase increased significantly (P<0.05) in rats given insulin and the extract, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared to diabetic rats. Theangiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in lungs, kidney and heart of diabetic rats were significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of control rats. Also kidney and liver functions were affected on induction of diabetes with a significant increase in levels of urea and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). All of the above factors reduced significantly (P<0.05) when rats were given either insulin or the extract. In conclusion, this study has shown that a combination of the aqueous leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum inhibits ACE activity, lowers blood glucose and lipid levels; and is a good antioxidant.


Key words: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina, diabetes.

Akah PA, Okafor CI (1992). Blood sugar lowering effect of Vernonia amygdalina (del) in an experimental rabbit model. Phytother. Res. 6: 171-173.
Akah PA, Alemji JA, Salawu OA, Okoye TC, Offiah NV (2009). Effects of Vernonia amygdalina on biochemical and haematological parameters in diabetic rats. Asian J. Med. Sci. 1(3): 108-113.
Akah PA, Njoku O, Nwanguma A, Akunyuli D (2004). Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on blood glucose and triglyceride levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Rattus rattus). Anim. Res. Int.1: 90-94.
Akinmoladun AC, Ibukun EO, Afor E, Obuotor EM, Farombi EO (2007). Phytochemical constituent and antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum. Sci. Res. Essay 2 (5):163-166.
Arora S (2010). Renal function in diabetic nephropathy. World J Diabetes. 1(2): 48-56
Asuquo OR, Igiri AO, Akpan JE,Akpaso MI (2010). Cardioprotective potential ofVernonia Amygdalinaand Ocimum Gratissimumagainst streptozotocin (Stz) - induced diabetes in wistar rats. Int. J. Trop. Med. 7 (1): 3
Atangwho IJ, Ebong PE, Eteng MU, Eyong EU, Obi AU (2007). Effect of Vernonia amygdalina Del leaf on kidney function of diabetic rats. Int. J. Pharmacol. 3(2):143-148

Ayinla MT, Dada SO, Shittu ST, Olayaki LA, Akiode AO, Ojulari SL (2011). Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Med. Med. Sci. 3(12):360-363
Ayoola GA, Coker HAB, Adesegun SA, Adepoju-Bello AA, Obaweva K, Ezennia EC, Atangbayila TO (2008). Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in South western Nigeria. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 7: 1019-1024.
Bhaskar A, KumarA (2012). Antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect ofPunica granatum L flower extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac. J. Trop Biomed. S1764-S1769
Baynes JW, Thorpe SR (1999). Role of Oxidative stress in diabetic complications. Diabetes 48:1-9.
Betteridge J (1997). Lipid disorder in diabetes mellitus In: Text book of diabetes. Witham SG (Ed.) London: Blackwell Science
Buege JA, Aust SD (1978). Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol. 52:302-310.
Chis IC, Ungureanu MI, Marton A, Simedrea R, Muresan A, Postescu I, Decea N (2009). Antioxidant effects of a grape seed extractin a rat model of diabetes mellitus. Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res. 6(3): 200-204.
Cushman DW, Cheung HS (1971). Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the angiotensin converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochem. Pharm. 20: 1637-1648.
Ekeocha PC, Fasola TR, Ekeocha, AH (2012). The effect of Vernonia amygdalina on alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Afr. J. Food Sci. Technol. 3(3):73-77.
Elias D, Prigoin H, Polak N, Kapoport ML, Cohen AW (1994). Autoimmune diabetes included by the B-cell toxin size. Diabetes 43:992-998.
Erman A, Chen-gal B, David I, Giller S, Boner G, Van Dijk DJ (1998). Insulin treatment reduces the increased serum and lung angiotensin converting enzyme activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Inv. 58: 81-87.
Ezekwe CI, Obioha O (2001). Biochemical effects of Vernonia amygdalina on rat liver microsome. Niger J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 16: 1745-1798.
Folch J, Lees M, Stanley GH (1957). A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497–509.
Goodman LS, Gilman AG (1985). The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Macmilliian Publishing Company, New York.
Haidari F, Shahi MM, Zarei M, Rafiei H, Omidian K (2012). Effect of green tea extract on body weight, serum glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A dose response study. Saudi
Med. J. 33(2):128-33.
Harris EH (2005) Elevated liver function test in type 2 diabetes. Clin. Diabetes 23(3): 115-119.
Hosseini M, Shafiee SM, Baluchnejadmorjarad T (2007). Garlic extract reduces serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pathophysiology 14: 109-112.
Iwalokun BI, Alibi-Sofunde JA, Odunala T, Magbagbeola OA, Akinwande AI (2006). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Vernonia amygdalina on acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice. J. Med. Food. 9(4): 526-530.
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Nineham R (1980). Improved glucose tolerance four hours after taking guar with glucose. Diabetologia 19(1): 21-4.
Kakkar R, Kalra J, Mantha SV, Prasad K (1995). Lipid peroxidation and activity of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 151: 113–119.
Kangralkar VA, Shivraj DP, Bandivadekar R M (2010). Oxidative stress and diabetes: A review. Int. J. Pharm. App. 1(1): 38-45
Koshio S, Ackmar RG, Lall SP (1994). Effects of oxidized herring and Canola oil diets on growth, survival and flavour of Atlantic salmon, Salmon Salar. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1164-1169.
Larner J (1985) Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs: Glucagon. In: Gilman, A. G., Goodman, L. S. and Gilman, A. (eds.) Pharmacolo-gical Basis of Therapeutics, 7th Edition, Macmillan, London. pp. 1490 – 1516.
Lely LA, Luik PT, Navis G (2007). Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme: A Pathogenetic Role in Diabetic Renal. Curr. Diabetes Rev. 3: 41-52
Lemhadri A, Eddouks M, Sulpice T, Burcelin R (2007). Anti- hyperglycaemic and anti-obesity Effects of Capparisspinosa and Chamaemelumnobile aqueous extracts in HFD mice. Am. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2(3): 106-110.
Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Bain PR, Rohde RD (1993). The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme on diabetic nephropathy. N. Engl. J. Med. 329 (20): 1456-1462.
Lieberman J (1975). Elevation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) level in sarcoidosis. Am. J. Med. 59:356-72.
Lorke D (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch. Toxicol. 54: 275-287.
Machly AC, Chance B (1959) The assay of catalase and peroxidase. In: Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Glick, D. (Ed.) Inter Science Publishers Inc., New York. 1:357-425.
Mayfield J (1998). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus: New criteria. Am. Family Phys. 58(6): 1355-1362.
Magarinos AM, McEwen BS (2000). Experimental diabetes in rats causes hippocampal dendritic and synaptic reorganization and increased glucocorticoid reactivity to stress. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (20): 11056–11061.
McCord JM, Fridovich I (1988) Superoxide dismutase: the first twenty years (1968–1988). Free Radic. Biol. Med. 5: 363–369.
Milagro FI, Martinez JA (2000). Effect of the oral administration of a beta 3-adrenergic agonist on lipid metabolism in alloxan-diabetic rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 52(7):851-856.
Mohammed YT, Okasha MA, Magaji RA, Yaro AH (2007). Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum on blood glucose levels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 6 (18):2087-2090.
Moussa SA (2008). Oxidative stress in Diabetes Mellitus. Romanian J. Biophys. 18(3):225-236.
Nielsen SE, Takeshi S, Tarnow L, Lajer M, Schjoedt KJ, Strup AS, Baba T, Hans-Henrik P, Rossing P (2009). Tubular and Glomerular Injury in Diabetes and the Impact of ACE Inhibition. Diabetes Care 32(9): 1684-1688.
Nwanjo HU (2005). Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status in diabetic rat models. Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 20(1-2):39-42.
Nwanjo HU (2006). Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status in diabetic rat models. Niger. J. Phys. Sci. 20 (1-2): 39-42
Nwanjo HU (2007). Studies on the effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri on plasma glucose level and some hepatospecific markers in diabetic Wistar rats. Int. J. Lab. Med. 2(2): 1-18.
Nwanjo HU, Oze GO (2007). Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant properties of Ocimum gratissimumon diabetic rats. Plant Prod. Res. J. 11:1-4
Okokon JE, Umoh UF, Ekpo BAJ, Etim EI (2013). Antidiabetic study of combined extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum, and Gongronema latifolium on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J. Nat. Pharm. 4(1): 28-31.
Ong KW, Hsu A, Song L, Huang D, Tan BK (2011). Polyphenols-rich Vernonia amygdalina shows anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 133(2):598-607
Owolabi MA, Jaja SI, Oyekanmi OO, Olatunji J (2008). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina. J. Compl. Integr. Med. 5:1.
Pari L, Latha M (2002). Effect of Cassia Auriculata flowers on blood sugar levels, serum and tissue lipids in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Singapore Med. J. 43(12): 617-621
Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritters, JM (1991). The endocrine pancrease and the control of blood glucose: In: Barbara Simmons and Susan Beasley (Ed.) Pharmacology, United Kingdom: Longman Group Ltd, pp. 403-410.
Rheney CC, Kirk KK (2000). Performance of three blood glucose meters. Ann. Pharmacother. 34(3):317-321
Robinson G, Johnston DE (1997). Metabolic disorder: Diabetes. In: Mechanisms of disease. An introduction to clinical science. 1st Edn., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Rosa EVC, Valgas C, Souza-Sierra MM, Correa AXR, Radetski CM (2003). Biomass growth, micronucleus induction, and antioxidant stress enzyme responses in Vicia faba exposed to cadmium in solution. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22(3):645 - 649.
Schernthaner G, Schwarzer CH, Kuzmits R, Muller MM, Klemen U, Freyler H (1984). Increased angiotensin-converting enzyme activities in diabetes mellitus: analysis of diabetes type, state of metabolic control and occurrence of diabetic vascular disease. J. Clin. Pathol. 37:307-312
Segal RA, Huang B, Ramanis, Z, Luck DJL (1984). Mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that move backwards only. J. Cell Biol. 98: 2026-2034.
Sharma SB, Gupta S, Ac R, Singh UR, Rajpoot R, Shukla SK (2010). Antidiabetogenic action of Morus rubra L. leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 62(2):247-55.
Srinivasan K, Ramarao P (2007). Animal models in type 2 diabetes research: An overview. Indian J. Med. Res. 125: 451-472
Szkudelski T (2001). The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in B cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol. Res. 50(6): 537-46.
Van Dyk DJ, Erman A, Erman T, Chen-Gal B, Sulkes J, Boner G. (1994). Increased serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: its relation to metabolic control and diabetic complications. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 24: 463-467.
World Health Organization (WHO) (1999). Definition, Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its complication
Yaro AH, Anuka JA, Salawu OA, Magaji MG (2007). Anticonvulsant activities of methanol extract of Chrysanthellum indicum linn. Vatke in mice and chicks. Niger. J. Pharm. Sci. 6(2): 22-27.


APA (2013). Effect of combined use of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina extract on the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme, hypolipidemic and antioxidant parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Biochemistry Research , 7(9), 165-173.
Chicago Abdulazeez Mansurah A., Ibrahim Kassim, Bulus Kenpia, Babvoshia Hope B. and Abdullahi, Yusuf. "Effect of combined use of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina extract on the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme, hypolipidemic and antioxidant parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats." African Journal of Biochemistry Research 7, no. 9 (2013): 165-173.
MLA Abdulazeez Mansurah A., et al. "Effect of combined use of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina extract on the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme, hypolipidemic and antioxidant parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats." African Journal of Biochemistry Research 7.9 (2013): 165-173.

Subscription Form