African Journal of Biochemistry Research
Subscribe to AJBR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - E5FAF0A66906

Vol.11(11), pp. 72-78 , November 2017
ISSN: 1996-0778

 Total Views: 0
 Downloaded: 0

Full Length Research Paper

Therapeutic effect of an alkaloid-rich fraction of Abrus precatorius seed methanol extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats

Ukegbu Chimere Young
  • Ukegbu Chimere Young
  • Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Parker Elijah Joshua
  • Parker Elijah Joshua
  • Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Okwesili Fred Nwodo C.
  • Okwesili Fred Nwodo C.
  • Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Iroha Okechukwu
  • Iroha Okechukwu
  • Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

 Received: 27 February 2017  Accepted: 01 September 2017  Published: 30 November 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

The therapeutic effect of an alkaloid-rich fraction of the chloroform-methanol extract of Abrus precatorius seeds on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated in this study. The extract was fractionated in a 17.5 × 2.5 cm Sephadex G15 swollen, packed and eluted with water. The fractions were spotted on F2.54 pre-coated thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates and sprayed with Drangendorff’s reagent. The fractions that turned purple indicating the presence of alkaloids were pulled together and used in the study. Hepatotoxicity was induced using per oral 2500 mg/kg b.w. of paracetamol. Treatment with the fraction caused a dose-dependent significant decrease (p ˂ 0.05) in the activity of serum liver marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), bilirubin levels, serum urea, creatinine and Malondialdehyde (MDA)] concentrations when compared with the positive control, while there was a significant increase (p ˂ 0.05) in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the treated rats when compared with the positive control. The haematological parameters of the rats treated with fraction I showed significant increases (p˂0.05) in the packed cell volume (PCV) levels, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and red blood cell (RBC) count compared to the positive control. From these findings, the alkaloid-rich fraction had a therapeutic effect on the paracetamol-intoxicated rats but the standard drug used was more potent.

Key words: Abrus precatorius, Sephadex, Drangendoff’s reagent, paracetamol.

Amuta OP, Nnamani PO, Musa AD, Nwodo OFC (2011). Three pyridinium alkaloids may account for the antibiotic effect of the seed of A. precatorius. Der Chem. Sin. 2(2):44-45.


Anupama AS, Sanjay BK (2013). Inhibitory effect of Abrus Precatorious extract on Bronchial Hyper-reactivity induced by ovalbumin in experimental animals. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 5(1):403-409.


Babson LA (1965). Alkaline phosphatase. Clin. Chem. 2:789-795.


Babson LA Greeley SJ, Coleman CM, Philips GD (1966). Alkaline phosphatase determination. Clin. Chem. 12:482-490.


Bartels H, Rohmen M (1972). Colormetric method of determining serum creatinine concentration. Clin. Chem. Acta 37:193-199.


Battu GR, Kumar BM (2009). Hepato-protective Activity of A. precatorius Linn. Against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Pharmgine 3:366-375.


Cheesbrough M (2008). Counting white cells and platelets in district laboratory practice in tropical countries, Part 2. The Edinburgh: Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. pp. 314-329.


Cheesbrough M (2005). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries (Part 1). 2ndEdn. Cambridge University Press. pp. 340-349.


Chun LJ, Tong MJ, Busuttil RW, Hiatt JR (2009). Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and acute liver failure. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 43(4):342-349.


Ciddi V (2012). Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs. J. Adv. Pharm. Technol. Res. 3(4):200-201.


Curtis JJ, Mortiz M (1972). Serum enzymes derived from liver cell fraction and response to carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats. Gastroenterology 62:84-92.


Dacie JV, Lewis SM (1991). Practical Haematology. 7th Edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh. pp. 535-544.


Dipanjan G, Tapas KM (2007). Immuno-modulatory and anti-tumor activities of native and heat denatured Abrus agglutinin. Immunobiology 212:589-599.


Drotman RB, Lawhorn GT (1978). Serum enzymes are indicators of chemical induced liver damage. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1:163‐71.


Fawcett JK, Scott JE (1960). Colormetric method of determining serum urea concentration. J. Clin. Pathol. 13:156-159.


Garba SH, Sambo N, Bala U (2009). The Effect Of The Aqueous Extract Of Kohautia Grandiflora on Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage In Albino Rats. Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 24(1):17-23.


Gaw A, Cowan RA, O'Reilly DSJ, Stewart MJ, Shepherd J (1999). Clinical biochemistry – an illustrated color text (1st Ed.). New York: Churchill Livingstone. pp. 51‐53.


Gupta AK (2006). Hepato-protective activity of Rauwolfiaserpentina rhizome in Paracetamol-Intoxicated rats. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1:82-88.


Harborne JB (1998). Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3rd Edn. Chapman and Hall, London. pp. 40-138.


Henry RJ, Cannon DC, Winkleman JW (1974). Clinical Chemistry Principles and Techniques. (2ndEdn.), Harper and Row Hagerstrown. P 712.


Hijora E, Nistar F, Sipulova A (2005). Changes in ascorbic acid and malonaldehyde in rats after exposure to mercury. Bratisl. Lek. Listy 106(8-9):248-251.


Isao S, Tatsuya M, Kazuo Y (2004). Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Still an Important Issue. Yonago Acta Med. 47:17-28.


Jendrassik L, Grof P (1938). Simplified photometric methods for the determination of bilirubin. Biochem. Zschr. 297(8):1-9.


Jollow DJ, Thorgeirsson SS, Potter WZ, Hashimoto M, Mitchell JR (1974). Acetaminophen induced hepatic necrosis VI. Metabolic disposition of toxic and non‐toxic doses of Acetaminophen. Pharmacology 12:251‐271.


Joshua EP, Okwesili FCN, Chimere YU, Okoroafor OP (2016). Prophylactic effect of an alkaloid-rich fraction of A. precatorius Seed methanol extracton paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. G. Vet. 17(2):126-134.


Kale RH, Halde UK, Biyani KR (2012). Protective effect of aqueous extract of Urariapictaon Acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity in Rats. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Biomed. Sci. 3(1):110-113.


Klein B, Read PA, Babson LA (1960). Rapid colorimetric method for the quantitative determination of serum alkaline phosphatase. Clin. Chem. 6:269-275.


Lakshmi P, Tajdar H, Jehangir T, Sultana S (2006). Effect of gallic acid on renal biochemical alterations in male Wistar rats induced by ferric nitriloacetic acid. Hum. Toxicol. 25:523-529.


Mitchell JR, Jollow DJ, Potter WZ, Gillettee JR, Brodie BN (1973). Acetaminophen induced hepatic necrosis: Role of drug metabolism. J. Pharmacol. Exp Ther. 187:185-194.


Muriel P (1997). Peroxidation of lipids and liver damage. In: Antioxidants, Oxidants and Free Radicals, S I Baskin and H Salem edtitors. P 237.


Nwodo OFC, Alumanah EO (1991). Studies on A. precatorius seeds II: Antidiarrhoeal activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 31:395-398.


Nwodo OFC, Joshua PE, Ozoemena NF, Onwuzu NJ (2010). Haematological evaluation of the effect of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water on Paracetamol-intoxication in laboratory rats. J. Pharm. Res. 3(8):1831-1834.


Ochei J, Kolhatkar A (2008). Medical Laboratory Sciences: Theory and Practice. Tata McGraw Hill, New York. pp. 663-665.


Owoyele VB, Jimoh AS, Ogunrombi OA, Balogun AE, Soladoye OA (2005). Haematological evaluation of aqueous extract of Tithonia Diversifoliain Wistar Rats. Recent Prog. Med. Plan.13:401-409.


Peter FS (2015). Silymarin as a Natural Antioxidant: An overview of the current evidence and perspectives. Antioxidants 4:204-247.


Peter LK, Debra AV, Paul IF, Gordon G, Anthony RC (2006). Grandisines C−G, Indolizidine Alkaloids from the Australian Rainforest Tree Elaeocarpus grandis. J. Nat. Prod. 69(9):1295-1299.


Racková L, Májeková M, Kost'álová D, Stefek M (2004). Antiradical and antioxidant activities of alkaloids isolated from Mahoniaaquifolium. Structural aspects. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 12(17):4709-4715.


Rajaram N, Janardhanam K (1992). The chemical composition and nutritional potential tribal pulse, A. precatorius. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 42(4):285-290.


Rajkapoor B, Venugopal Y, AnbuJ, Harikrishnan N, Gobinath M, Ravichandran V (2008). Protective effect of phyllanthus polyphyllus on Acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 21(1).57-62.


Randle LE, Sathish JG, Kitteringham NR, Macdonald I, Williams DP, Park BK (2008). Alpha (1)-adrenoceptor antagonists prevent Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Br. J. Pharmacol. 153:820-830.


Ranju SP, Ariharasivakumar G, Girhepunje K, Upadhyay K (2009). In -Vitro antioxidative activity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds extracted from seeds of A. precatorius. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 1(2):136-140.


Rasool MK, Sabina EP, Ramya SR, Preety P, Patel S, Mandal N, Mishra PP, Samuel J(2010). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gallic acid in Paracetamol induced liver damage in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 62:638-643.


Reitman S, Frankel S (1957). A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28:56-63.


Savides MC, Oehne FW (1983). Acetaminophen and its toxicity. J. Appl. Toxicol. 3:95‐111.


Skeggs LT, Hochstrasser HC(1964). Colorimetric determination of chloride. Clin. Chem. 10:918-924.


Tietz NW (1976). Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. P 874.


Triggle DJ (1993). The future of medicinal chemistry. In. perspectives in medicinal chemistry; Testa, B., Kyburz, E., Fuhrer, W., Giger, R., Eds. Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta: Basel. pp. 3-12.


Ukegbu C, Odiba A, Edeke A, Anunobi O, Chukwunonyelum I (2016). Anti-diabetic Effect of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Axonopus compressus (P. Beauv) in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Int. J. Biochem. Res. Rev. 12(1):1-5.


Valan MF, John DBA, Venkataraman R (2010). Phyto-constituents with Hepato-protective Activity. Int. J. Chem. Sci. 8(3):1421-1432.


Vavaprasad B, Varahalarao V (2009). Antimicrobial properties of A. precatorius Linn seed extract against clinically important bacteria. Int. J. Pharm. Tech. Res. 1(2):1115-1118.


Vermeulen NPE, Bessems JGM, Van de Streat R (1992). Molecular aspects of Paracetamol‐induced hepatotoxicity and its mechanism based prevention. Drug Metab. Rev. 24:367‐407.


Vijayalakshmi AR, Malarkodi VV, Hemalatha S, Sudharani G, Jayakumari S (2011). Anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory activities of a bioactive alkaloid from the root bark of Plumeriaacutifolia Poir. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 1(5):401-405.


Wallin B, Rosengren B, Shertzer HG, Camejo G (1993). Lipoprotein oxidation and measurement of TBARS formation in a single microliter plate: Its use for evaluation of antioxidants. Anal. Biochem. 208:10-15.


Xin Z, Waterman DE, Henken RM, Harmon RJ (1991). Effects of copper status on neutrophil function, superoxide dismutase and copper distribution in steers. J. Diary Sci. 74:3078-3080.


Zimmermann M (1983). Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. Pain 16:109-110.



APA Ukegbu, C. Y., Joshua, P. E., Nwodo, C. O. F., & Iroha, O. (2017). Therapeutic effect of an alkaloid-rich fraction of Abrus precatorius seed methanol extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. African Journal of Biochemistry Research , 11(11), 72-78.
Chicago Ukegbu Chimere Young, Parker Elijah Joshua, Okwesili Fred Nwodo C., and Iroha Okechukwu  . "Therapeutic effect of an alkaloid-rich fraction of Abrus precatorius seed methanol extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats." African Journal of Biochemistry Research 11, no. 11 (2017): 72-78.
MLA Ukegbu Chimere Young, et al. "Therapeutic effect of an alkaloid-rich fraction of Abrus precatorius seed methanol extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats." African Journal of Biochemistry Research 11.11 (2017): 72-78.

Subscription Form