African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 878

Review

Bioremediation of soil and water polluted by cyanide: A review

Lovasoa Christine Razanamahandry*
  • Lovasoa Christine Razanamahandry*
  • Department of Water and Sanitary Engineering, Laboratory of Water, Decontamination, Ecosystem and Health (LEDES), International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE), 01 Po Box 594, 01 Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
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Hela Karoui
  • Hela Karoui
  • Department of Water and Sanitary Engineering, Laboratory of Water, Decontamination, Ecosystem and Health (LEDES), International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE), 01 Po Box 594, 01 Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
  • Google Scholar
Harinaivo Anderson Andrianisa
  • Harinaivo Anderson Andrianisa
  • Department of Water and Sanitary Engineering, Laboratory of Water, Decontamination, Ecosystem and Health (LEDES), International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE), 01 Po Box 594, 01 Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
  • Google Scholar
Hamma Yacouba
  • Hamma Yacouba
  • Department of Research, International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE), 01 Po Box 594, 01 Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
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  •  Received: 14 December 2016
  •  Accepted: 13 April 2017
  •  Published: 30 June 2017

Abstract

Cyanide is a chemical that is widely distributed in the environment, mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities. Only small quantities are naturally produced. Most industrial activities use this chemical compound for manufacturing a product as electroplating or for extracting gold. Exposure to cyanide results in negative health impacts to the wildlife and humans. In nature, cyanide occurs in several species and fates, of which the free cyanide forms are the most toxic ones. Cyanide can be removed by chemical or biological processes. Biological treatment called bioremediation, which is cost-effective and eco-friendly, is the most applied process to remove cyanide from contaminated environments. This technology focused on the use of microorganisms to remove pollutants. Many microorganisms have been reported to transform the cyanide in another less toxic compound, or to consume cyanide for their growth. The reactions are influenced by environmental parameters such as pH and temperature and by the nutriment availability. Bioremediation technologies were few applied in most of African Countries.  Future works should focus on how to adapt the bioremediation technologies that already applied in other parts of the World in African context.

Key words: Biotreatment, chemical compound, environment, microorganism.