Cyanide is a chemical that is widely distributed in the environment, mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities. Only small quantities are naturally produced. Most industrial activities use this chemical compound for manufacturing a product as electroplating or for extracting gold. Exposure to cyanide results in negative health impacts to the wildlife and humans. In nature, cyanide occurs in several species and fates, of which the free cyanide forms are the most toxic ones. Cyanide can be removed by chemical or biological processes. Biological treatment called bioremediation, which is cost-effective and eco-friendly, is the most applied process to remove cyanide from contaminated environments. This technology focused on the use of microorganisms to remove pollutants. Many microorganisms have been reported to transform the cyanide in another less toxic compound, or to consume cyanide for their growth. The reactions are influenced by environmental parameters such as pH and temperature and by the nutriment availability. Bioremediation technologies were few applied in most of African Countries. Future works should focus on how to adapt the bioremediation technologies that already applied in other parts of the World in African context.
Key words: Biotreatment, chemical compound, environment, microorganism.
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