African Journal of Food Science
Subscribe to AJFS
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - AD40A8366426


Vol.11(11), pp. 369-375 , November 2017
DOI: 10.5897/AJFS2017.1619
ISSN: 1996-0794



Full Length Research Paper

Acute toxicity evaluation of mixture of neem (Azadirachta indica) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils in rats



Ilesanmi J. O. Y.
  • Ilesanmi J. O. Y.
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Gungula D. T.
  • Gungula D. T.
  • Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Nadro M. S.
  • Nadro M. S.
  • Department of Biochemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 23 May 2017  Accepted: 11 September 2017  Published: 30 November 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The toxicity of the mixture of neem and moringa seed oils in the ratio of 1:3 was evaluated based on some biomarkers of liver and kidney functions of Wistar Albino rats. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of five rats each. Group A served as control. Groups B, C, D, E and F received doses of 100, 1000, 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg body weight of ratio 1:3 neem-moringa seed oil, respectively. The albino rats were observed for any changes for seven days; during this period, they were allowed free access to food and water ad-libitum. The rats were weighed and made to fast overnight. The serum obtained was used to determine the serum level of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Similarly, liver and kidney tissues were removed and homogenized separately in a normal saline in ratio of 1:10 w/v. The homogenate of liver was centrifuged and the supernatant was used to determine total protein and billirubine while that of kidney was used for determining creatinine and urea. The results of all the biochemical parameters tested did not show any significant difference (P>0.05) from the control up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight and did not produce any visible toxic effect. The dosage of 1:3 mixtures of neem-moringa seed oils appeared to be safe for humans.

 

Key words: Wistar albino rats, acute toxicity, neem-moringa seed oil, safety, biomarker.

A Calorie Counter (2016). What is monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat? The Healthy Good Fats.

 

Davies FB, Freed VH (2000). An Agro medical approach to pesticide management: Some health and environmental considerations. Consortium for International Crop Protection. 327p.

 
 

Dietrich L (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol. 54:275-287.
Crossref

 
 

Graziela de FAI, Tânia MSM II, Cláudia DG II, Kátia MN II; Rinaldo C dos S III; Marcelo ES II (2011). Biological evaluation of crude and degummed oil from Moringa oleifera Seeds. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. Int. J. 54(5):1003-1006.

 
 

Henry RJ (1974). Clinical chemistry principles and techniques. Second Edition. Harper & Row. 525p.

 
 

Ilesanmi JO, Gungula DT (2010). Preservation of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.)] walp grains against cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils. Int. J. Agron. 2010:1687-8159.
Crossref

 
 

Ilesanmi JO, Gungula DT (2011). Effects of neem and moringa seed oil on cookability and palatability of cowpea grains stored for six months. Afr. J. Food Sci. 5(9):522-528

 
 

Isman MB (2006). Botanical insecticides deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 51:45-66. 
Crossref

 
 

Johnson-Delaney C (1996). Exotic Animal Companion Medicine Handbook for Veterinarians, (2 Vol. Set). Lake Worth, FL: Zoological Education Network.

 
 

Maikai VA, Kobo PI and Adaudi AO (2008). Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem back extract of Ximenia americana. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(10):1600-1603.

 
 

Malloy H, Everlyn KA (1937). The determination of bilirubin with the photoelectric colorimeter. J. Bio. Chem. 119:481-490.

 
 

Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Channel 7, Lagos, Nigeria (2006).

 
 

Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Yola, Nigeria (2011).

 
 

O'Brien RD (2005). Insecticides – action and metabolism. Academic Press. P 333.

 
 

Olatosin TM, Akinduko DS, Uche CZ (2013). Evaluation of the hepatoprotective efficacy of Moringa oleifera seed oil on CCl4 – induced liver damage in Wistar Albino rats. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 11(2):13-18.

 
 

Organic facts: moringa oil benefit, uses and side effect. 

 
 

Rec. Gscc (DGKC) (1972). Optimized standard colorimetric methods. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem.10:182.

 
 

Reinhold JG (1953). Determination of total protein and albumin in: Standard methods of clinical chemistry. Reiner M (edited). Academic Press, New York and London. P 88.

 
 

Reitman S, Frankel S (1957). A colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamate pyruvate transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Path. 28:56-63.
Crossref

 
 

Chaudhary S, Kanwar RK, Sehgal A, Cahill DM, Barrow CJ, Sehgal R, Kanwar JR (2017). Progress on Azadirachta indica based biopesticides in replacing synthetic toxic pesticides. Frontiers in plant science published online 2017 May 8.doi:10.3389/fpls 2017.00610

 
 

Van-Valkenburg W (2000). Pesticides formulations. Marcel Dekker, New York.

 
 

Ware GW (1995). Pesticides: An auto tutorial approach. W.H. Freeman and company, San Francisco.

 
 

Weatherburn MW (1967). Phenol hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Anal. Chem. 39:971- 974.
Crossref

 
 

Whitney EN, Rolfes SR (1993). Understanding nutrition. West Publishing Company Minneapolis New York. pp. 28-37.

 
 

World Health Organization (1990). Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture Geneva: World Health Organization.

 
 

Yadav IC, Devi NL, Syed JH, Cheng Z, Li J, Zhang G (2015). Current stature of persistent organic pesticides residues in air, water and soil and their possible effect on neighbouring countries: a comprehensive review of India. Sci. Total Environ. 511:123-137. 10.1016/j.scitoteni.2014

 
 

Zanuncio JC, Serrao JE, Mourao SA (2016). Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predators, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: pentatomidae). Sci Rep. 6(6):30261. 
Crossref

 

 


APA Ilesanmi, J. O. Y., Gungula, D. T., & Nadro, M. S. (2017). Acute toxicity evaluation of mixture of neem (Azadirachta indica) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils in rats. African Journal of Food Science, 11(11), 369-375.
Chicago Ilesanmi J. O. Y., Gungula D. T. and Nadro M. S.. "Acute toxicity evaluation of mixture of neem (Azadirachta indica) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils in rats." African Journal of Food Science 11, no. 11 (2017): 369-375.
MLA Ilesanmi J. O. Y., Gungula D. T. and Nadro M. S.. "Acute toxicity evaluation of mixture of neem (Azadirachta indica) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils in rats." African Journal of Food Science 11.11 (2017): 369-375.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJFS2017.1619
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/AD40A8366426

Subscription Form