African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 763

Review

Spontaneously fermented kenyan milk products: A review of the current state and future perspectives

John Masani Nduko*
  • John Masani Nduko*
  • Department of Dairy and Food Science and Technology, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.
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Joseph W. Matofari
  • Joseph W. Matofari
  • Department of Dairy and Food Science and Technology, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.
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Zacchaeus Okoth Nandi
  • Zacchaeus Okoth Nandi
  • Department of Dairy and Food Science and Technology, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.
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Moses Barasa Sichangi
  • Moses Barasa Sichangi
  • Department of Dairy and Food Science and Technology, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.
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  •  Received: 15 September 2016
  •  Accepted: 10 October 2016
  •  Published: 31 January 2017

Abstract

Many spontaneously fermented milk products are produced in Kenya, where they are integral to human diet and play a central role in enhancing food security and income generation. Some of these products have demonstrated therapeutic and probiotic effects although recent reports have linked some to death, biotoxin infections, and esophageal cancer. These products are mostly processed from poor quality raw materials under unhygienic conditions resulting to inconsistent product quality and limited shelf-lives. Though very popular, research on their processing technologies is low. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most common spontaneously fermented milk products from Kenya including Mursik, Kule naoto, Amabere amaruranu and Suusa. Their production challenges and future perspectives are highlighted; emphasizing the need for application of high throughput biotechnologies in their study. Available literature on their microbiology, biochemistry, and chemical composition is summarized. Moreover, knowledge on the value of clean starting raw material, fermentation parameters definition, and employment of standard equipment are discussed.

Key words: Starter culture, probiotics, lactic acid bacteria, fermented milk, high throughput biotechnology, spontaneous fermentation, Kule naoto, Mursik, Amabere amaruranu