African Journal of Food Science
Subscribe to AJFS
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - FAB4CA364281


Vol.11(6), pp. 160-170 , June 2017
DOI: 10.5897/AJFS2016.1550
ISSN: 1996-0794



Full Length Research Paper

Bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat meats vended in highway markets in Uganda



Ananias Bagumire
  • Ananias Bagumire
  • National Food Safety Foundation (NFSF), the affiliated institution of the Food Safety Associates Limited, Plot 1099, Block 215, Kondogolo Zone, Ntinda-Kulambiro, off Ntinda-Kisasi Road, P.O. Box 2244 Kampala-Uganda
  • Google Scholar
Roland Karumuna*
  • Roland Karumuna*
  • Department of Environment Management, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P.O Box 7062 Kampala Uganda.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 22 December 2016  Accepted: 19 April 2017  Published: 30 June 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Ready-to-eat (RTE) meats are products sold to consumers which do not require significant further processing except re-heating or completion of cooking process. These meats may constitute a likely potential hazard to human health due to non-compliance with food safety regulations by food handlers. This study was aimed at evaluating the bacteriological safety of RTE roasted meats sold by selected food vendors in Lukaya and Najembe highway markets. Bacteriological analyses were conducted on 20 samples for each of the three meat products which included chicken, beef and goat meat during dry and wet seasons. ISO standard methods were used in the laboratory to test for presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Most samples (68.3%) were contaminated and exceeded the recommended microbial contaminant limit (MCL). S. aureus was high in beef and chicken where it appeared in 85% of the samples for each product. S. aureus was also in 75% of goat meat samples. E. coli was high in chicken (50%), followed by beef (45%) and goat meat (35%) samples. Contamination was slightly higher in the wet season. S. aureus was the main contaminant. Most RTE meats that are sold in highway markets were highly contaminated. This result should draw the attention of relevant authorities to ensure that adequate hygienic standards and regular monitoring of the quality of RTE meats are improved and practiced to avoid possible foodborne infections.

Key words: Ready-to-eat meats, contamination, coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, highway markets.

Abdalla MA, Suliman SE, Bakhiet AO (2009). Food safety knowledge and practices of street-food vendors in Atbara city (Naher Elneel State Sudan). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 8:6967-6971.

 

Adolf JNP, Azis BS (2012). Microbiological status of various foods served in elementary school based on social economic status differences in Karawachi Region, Tangerang District-Indonesia. Int. Food Res. J. 19(1):65-70.

 

Adu-Gyamfi A, Nketsia-Tabiri J (2007). Microbiological studies of macaroni and vegetable salads in Waakye, a local street food. Ghana J. Sci. 47:3-9.

 

Adu-Gyamfi A, Torgby-Tetteh W, Appiah V (2012). Microbiological quality of chicken sold in Accra and determination of D10-value of E. coli. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 3:693-698.
Crossref

 

Adzitey F, Teye G A, Kutah W N, Adday S (2011). Microbial quality of beef sold on selected markets in the Tamale Metropolis in the Northern Region of Ghana. J. Livestock Res. Rural Dev. 23:5-10.

 

Ahmad MUD, Sarwar AM, Najeeb I, Nawaz M, Anjum A A, Ali MA, Mansur N (2013). Assessment of microbial load of at abattoirs and retail outlets. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 23:745-748.

 

Amusan E, Oramadike CE, Abraham-Olukayode AO, Adejonwo OA (2010). Bacteriological quality of street vended smoked Blue Whiting (Micromesistus poutasou). Int. J. Food Saf. 12:122-126.

 

Akusu OM, Kiin-Kabari D B, Wemedo SA (2016). Microbiological quality of selected street vended foods in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Sky J. Food Sci. 5(2):008-011.

 

Barro N, Bello A, Itsiembou Y, Sevadogo A, Ouattara C (2007). Street-vended foods improvement: Contamination mechanisms and application of food safety objective strategy: Critical review. Asian Network for Scientific information Pak. J. Nutr. 6:1-10.
Crossref

 

Barro N, Bello AR, Savadogo A, Ouattara CAT, Ilboudo AJ, Traore AS (2006). Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5(11):1107-1112.

 

Bukar A, Uba A, Oyeyi TI (2010). Occurrence of some enteropathogenic bacteria in some minimally and fully processed ready-to-eat foods in Kano metropolis, Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Sci. 4(2):032-036

 

Bwire G, Malimbo M, Maskery B, Kim YE, Mogasale V, Levin A (2013). The burden of cholera in Uganda. PLoS. Negl. Trop. Dis. 7(12):e2545.
Crossref

 

CAC (1997). Regional guidelines for the design of control measures for street-vended foods (Africa) - Codex Alimentarius Supplement. Joint FAO/WHO food standards program. Agriculture and consumer protection department, FAO, Rome.

 

Cardinale E, Perrier JD, Tall F, Gueye EF, Salvat G (2005). Risk factors for contamination of ready-to-eat street vended poultry dishes in Dakar, Senegal. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 103:157-165.
Crossref

 

CDC (2005). Food-borne illness: Frequently asked questions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA.

 

Chirag G (2013). Study of hygienic practices of street food vendors in Allahabad city, India and determination of critical control points for safe street food. The Allahabad Farmer 68:1-13.

 

Cho JI, Cheung CY, Lee SM, Ko SI, Kim KH, Hwang, IS, Kim SH, Cho SY, Lim CJ, Lee KH, Kim KS, Ha SD (2011). Assessment of microbial levels of street-vended foods in Korea. J. Food Saf. (31):41-47.
Crossref

 

Chumber SK, Kaushik K, Savy S (2007). Bacteriological analysis of street foods in Pune. Indian J. Pub. Health 51:114-6.

 

Cuiwei Z, Beilie G, Juan D V, Robert S, Emily Y, Shaohua Z, David W, Jianghong M (2001). Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Serovars in retail chicken, turkey, pork, and beef from the Greater Washington DC Area. J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:5431-5436.
Crossref

 

Eugène N, Divine B, Martin P (2013). Assessment of beef meat microbial contamination during skinning, dressing, transportation and marketing at a commercial abattoir in Kigali city, Rwanda. Pak. J. Food Sci. 23:79-112.

 

FDA (2016). Food Safety Survey. Consumer Studies Branch, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA.

 

FDA (2013). Draft methodological approach to identifying high-risk foods under section 204(d)(2) of the FSMA, Food and Drug Administration.

 

Garode AM, Waghode SM (2012). Bacteriological status of street-vended foods and public health significance: A case study of Buldana District, MS, India. ISCA J. Biol. Sci. 1:69-71.

 

Haque M A, Siddique M P, Habib M A, Sarkar V, Choudhury KA (2008). Evaluation of sanitary quality of goat meat obtained from slaughter yards and meat stalls at late market hours. Bangl. J. Vet. Med. 6:87-92.

 

Hazariwala A (2002). Distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from poultry and human with invasive Staphylococcal disease. Avian Dis. 46:132-136.
Crossref

 

Hirwa N (2010). The study of the microbiological quality of beef sold in Nyarugenge District. Unpublished MSc. Kigali Institute of Science and Technology, Kigali, Rwanda.

 

ICMSF (2011). Microorganisms in Foods 8: Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance. View

 

Karamaji P (2012). Millions of Ugandans suffer from food poisoning annually. 

View

 

Kawo AH, Abdulmumin FN (2009). Microbiological quality of pre-packaged sweets sold in metropolitan Kano, Nigeria. Bayero J. Pure Appl. Sci. 2(1):154-159.

 

Makelele LK, Kazadi ZA, Oleko RW, Foma R, Rosette KM, Koto- te-Nyiwa N. and Bongo NG. (2015). Microbiological quality of food sold by street vendors in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. Afr. J. Food Sci. 9(5):285-290.
Crossref

 

Mbah M, Ogban GI, Konlack GD, USEH MF, Asuquo AE (2012). The bacteriological status of five selected street vended cooked foods in Calabar, Nigeria. IOSR J. Pharm. Biol. Sci. (IOSRJPBS) 2(4):25-29.

 

Mensah P, Amar-Klemesu M, Hammond A, Haruna A (2001). Bacterial contamination on lettuce, tomatoes, beef and goat meat from metropolitan Accra. Ghana Med. J. 35:1-6.

 

Mensah P, Yeboah-Manu D, Owusu-Darko K, Ablordey A (2002). Street foods from Accra, Ghana: How safe? Bulletin of World Health Organ, 80:546-54.

 

Miriam EN, Collins, EO, Nicoline FT, Ezekiel G, Roland NN (2012). Foodborne pathogens recovered from ready-to-eat foods from roadside cafeterias and retail outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9:2608-2619.
Crossref

 

MOH (2012). Annual Health Sector Performance Report. Ministry of Health Kampala, Uganda.

 

MOH (2013). Annual Health Sector Performance Report. Ministry of Health Kampala, Uganda.

 

Musa OL, Akande TM (2002). Effect of health education intervention or food safety practices among food vendors in Ilorin. Sahel Med. J. 5:120-124.

 

Muyanja C, Nayiga L, Namugumya B, Nasinyama G (2011). Practices, knowledge and risk factors of street food vendors in Uganda. Food Cont. 22:1551.
Crossref

 

Nkere CK, Ibe NI, Iroegbu CU (2011). Bacteriological quality of foods and water sold by vendors and in restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: A comparative study of three microbiological methods. J. Health Popul. Nutr. 29(6):560-566.

 

O' Brien SJ (2008). Foodborne disease outbreaks in healthcare setting. In: Lund, B.M. & Hunter, P.R. (Eds.). The microbiological safety of food in healthcare settings, pp. 251-289. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Crossref

 

Odu N (2013). Microbiological quality of street-vended-ready-to-eat "Bole" fish. In: Port Harcourt Metropoplis. New York Sci. J. 6:532-544.

 

Oghene BO, Oyarekua MA, Edeh AN. (2014). Bacteriological status of commonly consumed foods and vegetables from food vendors in a market in Enugu, Nigeria. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 3(11):151-156.

 

Pointon A, Sexton M, Dowsett P, Saputra T, Kiermeier A, Lorimer M, Holds G, Arnold G, Davos D, Combs B, Fabiansson S, Raven G, McKenzie H, Chapman A, Sumner J (2008). A baseline survey of the microbiological quality of chicken portions and carcasses at retail in two Australian states (2005 to 2006). J. Food Prot. 71:1123-1134.
Crossref

 

Razavilar V (2010). Pathogenic bacteria in food. 3rd. ed. Tehran: Tehran University Publication.

 

Sebudde S, Kabagambe R, Muganwa M (2012). Hygiene and sanitation in public eating places in one municipal health system of Uganda. Kampala: Erudite J. Med. Med. Sci. Res. (EJMMSR). 1:1-8.

 

Shamsuddeen U, Ameh JB (2008). Survey of the possible critical control points during the production of Balangu in Kano. Bayero J. Pure Appl. Sci. 1(1):76-79.

 

Soyiri I, Agbogli H, Dongden J (2008). A pilot microbial safety of beef sold in Ashiaman market a suburb of Accra. Afr. J. Dev. 8:91-103.

 

Stewart WL and Humphrey K (2002). Ready to eat food and foodborne infection, 5th ed., CBS Publisher and Distributors, New Delhi, India: pp. 240-245.

 

Tambekar DH, Kulkarni RV, Shirsat SD, Bhadange DG (2011). Bacteriological quality of street vended food panipuri: A case study of Amravati city (MS) India. Biosci. Discov. 2(3):350-354.

 

Tambekar D, Jaiswal V, Dhanorkar D, Gulhane P, Dudhane M (2008). Identification of microbiological hazards and safety of ready-to-eat food vended streets of Amravati city, India. J. Appl. Biosci. 7:195 - 201.

 

Tavakoli HR (2008). Food microbiology and control of food production and distribution centers. 2nd ed. Tehran: Marz-e-Danesh publication.

 

Tsang D (2002). Microbiological guidelines for ready-to-eat food. Road and Environmental Hygiene Department Hong Kong, 115-116.

 

UBOS (2011). Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) and Macro International Inc Calverton, Maryland, USA.

 

ULRC (2013). Review of the Markets Act, Cap 94 in Uganda. Market Review report, Uganda Law Reform Commission.

 

URN (2010). Dysentery outbreak in Kanungu. 

View

 

WHO (2012). Uganda Cholera (Situation as of 31 March, 2012). Accessed on 15th January 2017 at http://who.int/csr/don/17-march-2015-uganda/en

 

WHO (2015). Typhoid fever in Uganda. 

View

 

Winnie V M (2005). Street vending in African cities: A synthesis of empirical findings from Kenya, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa. Background Paper for the 2005 World Development Report, Institute for Development Studies University of Nairobi. pp. 4-30.

 

Wogu MD, Omoruiy MI, Odeh HO, Guobadia, JN (2011). Microbial load in ready-to-eat rice sold in Benin city. J. Microb. Antimicro. 3(2):29-33.

 

Zhu M, Du M, Cordray J, Ahn DU (2005). Control of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in ready-to-eat meat products. Compr Rev Food Sci. Food Saf. 4:34-42.
Crossref

 


APA Bagumire, A., & Karumuna, R. (2017). Bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat meats vended in highway markets in Uganda. African Journal of Food Science, 11(6), 160-170.
Chicago Ananias Bagumire and Roland Karumuna. "Bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat meats vended in highway markets in Uganda." African Journal of Food Science 11, no. 6 (2017): 160-170.
MLA Ananias Bagumire and Roland Karumuna. "Bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat meats vended in highway markets in Uganda." African Journal of Food Science 11.6 (2017): 160-170.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJFS2016.1550
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/FAB4CA364281

Subscription Form