African Journal of Marketing Management
Subscribe to AJMM
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 4D3640147714


Vol.6(6), pp. 75-81 , October 2014
DOI: 10.5897/AJMM2010.021
ISSN: 2141-2421



Review

Millenium development goals and combating agricultural child labour in Nigeria



Ben-Chendo, G.N.
  • Ben-Chendo, G.N.
  • Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
J.I. Lemchi
  • J.I. Lemchi
  • Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
F.O. Nwosu
  • F.O. Nwosu
  • Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
N.C. Ehirim
  • N.C. Ehirim
  • Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 10 May 2010  Accepted: 22 September 2014  Published: 31 October 2014

Copyright © 2014 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


A simmering crisis in the Nigerian agriculture today involves labour and the crisis manifests itself in the degree of labour availability, labour demand and labour productivity. One of the major products of this crisis is the increased participation of children in paid, non-familiar agricultural jobs. They are frequently employed as farm labourers, bird scarers, food crop harvesters, processors and hawkers. More than 132 million children work in agriculture. Agriculture ranks as one of the three most dangerous work activities, followed by mining and construction. Child labour is increasing in postharvest processing, transport, marketing and a range of agroindustries. Child labour is maybe one of the most striking indicators identifying vulnerable children and as such pointing to  shortcomings in several of the millennium goals as poverty eradication, education for all, gender equality, combating HIV/AIDS and creation of a global partnership for development. Most working children do so after a decision in their parental household. To understand the household labour supply decisions, relation to the labour market and to public interventions is critical in designing programmes in order to achieve the MDGs. The research on child labour represents in this respect a largely untapped resource of knowledge for policymakers in the fields of  agriculture, education programmes and poverty reduction programmes. The effect of lack of education opportunities on child labour is well documented, but existence of widespread agricultural child labour also reduces the effectiveness of investment in education. It is recommended in this paper that the legislator should enact laws that will reduce agricultural child labour through redistribution of the nation’s resources, women should be integrated in the fight to combat child labour and that alternative income sources should be provided for rural families whose children are the most vulnerable.

 

Key words: Child labour, agriculture,  combating, development.

CARE (2007). Caution- Children at Work. Galvanising ommunities to End Child Labour.Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere Inc. (CARE) USA. www.care.org

 

Castle S, Diarra A (2004). The International Migration of Young Malians: Tradition, Necessity or Rite of Passage? London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (2004).

 

Donli HM (2004). "Socio-legal consequences of child abuse". In: Women and Children in Nigeria Law. Ajibola, R. (ed). Federal Ministry of Justice Law. Review series 6:129 -157.

 

EFA (2007). Newsletter of the Global Task Force on Child Labour and Education for All (March 2007).

 

FAO (2007). Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) and Child Labour. Policy Brief 2.

 

Gustafsson-Wright E, Pyne HH (2002). Gender dimensions of child labour and street child in Brazil. World Bank Policy Research Working paper 2897, October, 2002.

 

Handa S (2002). "Raising Primary School Enrollment in Developing Countries: The Relative Importance of Supply and Demand," J Dev. Econ. 66(1):103-128.
Crossref

 

ICFTU (2005). Internationally recognized Core Labour Standards in Nigeria. Report for the WTO General Council review of the Trade Polices in Nigeria. Geneva 11 – 13 May.

 

IITA (2002). Child labour in the cocoa sector of West Africa: a synthesis of findings in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria. Report, August 2002. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria.

 

ILO (1999). Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Elimination of the Worst Forms of Chile Labour [Convention No. 182]. International Labour Organization (1999).

 

ILO (2002). Eliminating the Worst Form of Child Labour: A Practical Guide to ILO Convention No. 182. International Labour Organization and the Inter-Parliamentarian Union (2002).

 

ILO-IPEC (2002). Combating Trafficking in children for labour exploitation in West and Central Africa. Report on sub-regional workshop, Cotonou, Benin, 18 – 29 July.

 

ILO-IPEC (2007). Rooting out child labour from cocoa farms – paper no. 3: sharing experiences. Geneva, International Labour Office, 2007

 

Imam YO (1998). A situation analysis of Almajiris in North East Zone of Nigeria. A report submitted to UNICEF, Nigeria.

 

International Labour Organization (2002). Every Child counts; new global estimates on child labour ILO/IPEC Geneva.

 

International Labour Organization (2003). Working out of poverty, Report of the Director General to the 91st ILO Conference., Geneva

 

Okpukpara BC, Odurukwe N (2003). Incidence and Determinants of Child Labour in Nigeria: Implication for Poverty Alleviation. J. Econ. Policy 10 (2).

 

Oloko SBA (1999). National study on child labour in Nigeria, Report for International Labour Organisation, Lagos.

 

Onuike AC (1998). Child labour in Nigeria Transport Industry, paper presented at the 8th World Conferences in Transport Research, Antwep, Belgium 12th – 17th July.

 

Osotimehin KO, Tijani AA, Ajayi OA (2007). Child-Workers in Agricultural Commodity Markets: An evaluation of Youths' Participation in Porterage services in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Research J. Soc. Sci. 2:38-43, 2007 INSinet Publication

 

Ravallion M, Wodon Q (1999). "Does Child Labor Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioral Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy." Working Paper: World Bank.

 

Swinnerton KA, Rogers CA (2001). A Theory of Exploitative Child Labour. Working Paper.

 

Swinnerton KA, Rogers CA (1999). The economics of child labour: Comment. Am. Econ. Rev. 89(5):1382-85.
Crossref

 

Udry C (2004). Child Labour. Yale University.

 

UNICEF (2001). Children's and Women's right in Nigeria. A Wake-up call. Situation assessment and Analysis, 2001.

 

UNICEF (2004). The State of the World's Children 2004. The United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF. House, 3 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA.

 


APA Ben-Chendo, G. N., Lemchi, J. I., Nwosu, F.O., & Ehirim, N. C. (2014). Millenium development goals and combating agricultural child labour in Nigeria. African Journal of Marketing Management, 6(6), 75-81.
Chicago Ben-Chendo, G.N., J.I. Lemchi, F.O. Nwosu and N.C. Ehirim. "Millenium development goals and combating agricultural child labour in Nigeria." African Journal of Marketing Management 6, no. 6 (2014): 75-81.
MLA Ben-Chendo, et al. "Millenium development goals and combating agricultural child labour in Nigeria." African Journal of Marketing Management 6.6 (2014): 75-81.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJMM2010.021
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMM/article-abstract/4D3640147714

Subscription Form