African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2092

Review

Phytanic acid, a daily consumed chlorophyll-yielded phytol bio-metabolite: A comprehensive review

Md. Torequl Islam
  • Md. Torequl Islam
  • Northeast Biotechnology Network (RENORBIO), Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piaui)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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Eunus S. Ali
  • Eunus S. Ali
  • Gaco Pharmaceuticals and Research Laboratory, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
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Ricardo M. de Carvalho
  • Ricardo M. de Carvalho
  • Laboratory of Toxicology and Genetics, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piaui)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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Márcia F. C. J. Paz
  • Márcia F. C. J. Paz
  • Laboratory of Toxicology and Genetics, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piaui)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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Antonio L. Braga
  • Antonio L. Braga
  • Laboratory of Toxicology and Genetics, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piaui)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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Rosália M. T. de Lima
  • Rosália M. T. de Lima
  • Laboratory of Toxicology and Genetics, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piaui)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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Leonardo da R. Sousa
  • Leonardo da R. Sousa
  • Laboratory of Toxicology and Genetics, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piaui)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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Marcus V. O. B. de Alencar
  • Marcus V. O. B. de Alencar
  • Northeast Biotechnology Network (RENORBIO), Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piaui)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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Jose V. de Oliveira Santos
  • Jose V. de Oliveira Santos
  • Laboratory of Toxicology and Genetics, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piaui)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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Ana A. de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
  • Ana A. de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
  • Northeast Biotechnology Network (RENORBIO), Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piaui)-64.049-550, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 06 March 2015
  •  Accepted: 09 September 2016
  •  Published: 29 December 2016

Abstract

An important chlorophyll-derived diterpenoid essential oil, phytol (PYT) bio-metabolite, phytanic acid (PA) has a number of pathophysiological contributions. The PA metabolism and its plasma levels associated phenomena are continuously being researched on. This study aims to look at the complete current scenario of PA. The findings suggest that PA has anti-diabetic, cytotoxic, anticancer and anti-teratogenic activities. Although PA-mediated Refsum’s Diseases (RD), Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome (SLS) and prostate cancer are still controversial; Zellweger's Disease Hyperpipecolic Academia (ZDHA), Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata (RCDP), Leber Disease (LD) and oxidative stress leading to mitochondrial and cardiac complications are also evident. In conclusion, PA may be a good biomarker of some pathophysiological phenomena and can be used for medico-pharmaceutical functions.

Key words: Phytanic acid, phytol bio-metabolite, biomarkers, pathophysiological contributions.

Abbreviation

ACSVL1/VLCS, Membrane-bound enzyme at the ER; AMACR, α-methylacyl-CoA racemase; ARD, adult Refsum’s disease; ERD, early Refsum’s disease; FAO, fatty acid oxidase; HDL, high density lipoproteins; IDDM, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; IRD, infantile Refsum’s disease; LD, Leber disease; NALD, neonatal adrenoleucodystrophy; PA, phytanic acid; PPAR, proliferator-activated receptor; PYT, phytol; PAHX, phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase; RBC, red blood corpuscles; RCDP, rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata; ROS, reactive oxygen species; RXR, retinoid X receptor; SLS, Sjogren Larsson syndrome; ZDHA, Zellweger's disease hyperpipecolic academia; 3-MAA, 3-methyl-adipic acid; ADH, aldehyde dehydrogenase; AMP, adenosine mono-phosphate; ATP, adenosine tri-phosphate; AV, arterio-ventricular; CoA-SH, co-enzyme-A-thiol; CYP450, - cytochrome P-450; CVS, cardio vascular system; DNA, deoxy ribonucleic acid; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; FAD, flavin adenine di-nucleotide; FADH, reduced flavin adenine di-nucleotide; FALDH, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase; FL, follicular lymphoma; GRP40, G-protein-coupled receptor-40; HACL1, 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase; LBL, large B-cell lymphoma; NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NAD+, oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NADH, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NADP, reduced nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate; NADP+, oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NADPH, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma; PDH, pristanal dehydrogenase; PHYH, phytanoyl-CoA α-hydroxylase; PHYH/PAHX, phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydrolase; PMP34, peroxisomal membrane protein-34; PXMP2, peroxisomal membrane protein-2; RAR, retinoic acid receptor; Res, retinyl esters; SCPx, sterol carrier protein; UDP, uridine di-phosphate.