African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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Article Number - 2DCCAEC62209


Vol.11(1), pp. 1-9 , January 2017
DOI: 10.5897/AJPP2014.4186
ISSN: 1996-0816



Full Length Research Paper

Acute oral toxicity of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. ethanolic extract in albino mice



Nalule A. S.
  • Nalule A. S.
  • Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Animal Resources Management, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, Makerere University P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar
Afayoa M.
  • Afayoa M.
  • Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar
Mali B.
  • Mali B.
  • Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Animal Resources Management, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, Makerere University P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar
Majidu M.
  • Majidu M.
  • Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 22 September 2014  Accepted: 22 November 2016  Published: 08 January 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


This study was carried out to determine acute oral toxicity and histopathological effects associated with consumption of Euphorbia heterophylla ethanolic extract using 9 to 10 weeks old Albino mice randomized in six groups. The five groups were orally administered with single graded doses of plant extract at 1500, 2000, 2500, 3500 and 4000 mg/kg body weight while the sixth group was administered 1 ml of physiological saline and the animals were observed for toxicity signs and death. Viscera organs were obtained after cervical dislocation for histopathological assessment. The graded extracts induced dose-dependent toxicity signs with major clinical manifestation prior to death including: polyurea, circling, paralysis, thirst, loss of appetite and gait, tachypnea, dehydration and stupor. The major dose- dependent histopathological lesions included: Hemorrhages, congestion, peri-vascular degeneration and necrosis in viscera organs in the groups that received 2000 to 4000 mg/kg body weight. The 24 h median lethal dose was 2831 mg/kg body weight and the 95% confidence interval of median lethal dose was 2490 to 3218 mg/kg body weight and R2 is 0.96 indicating E. heterophylla is of low toxicity. The study demonstrated the toxicity potential associated with uncontrolled use of this plant by the communities. Toxicological studies of sub chronic and chronic toxicity, as well as in vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity need to be conducted considering the well claimed prolonged use of the plant extract to assess the effect prolonged use on animals.

Key words: Acute oral toxicity, histopathological lessions, Euphorbia heterophylla.

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APA Nalule, A. S., Afayoa, M., Malim, B. & Majidu, M. (2017). Acute oral toxicity of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. ethanolic extract in albino mice. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 11(1), 1-9.
Chicago Nalule A. S., Afayoa M., Mali B. and Majidu M.. "Acute oral toxicity of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. ethanolic extract in albino mice." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11, no. 1 (2017): 1-9.
MLA Nalule A. S., et al. "Acute oral toxicity of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. ethanolic extract in albino mice." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11.1 (2017): 1-9.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJPP2014.4186
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/2DCCAEC62209

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