African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2092

Full Length Research Paper

Anti-respiratory syncytial virus activities of leaf extracts of Alchornea cordifolia and Alchornea floribunda

Damian C. Odimegwu
  • Damian C. Odimegwu
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria.
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Festus Basden C. Okoye
  • Festus Basden C. Okoye
  • Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria.
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Sylvester C. Nworu
  • Sylvester C. Nworu
  • Department of Pharmacology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
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Charles C. Esimone
  • Charles C. Esimone
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 13 January 2018
  •  Accepted: 20 February 2018
  •  Published: 28 February 2018

Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes viral infection of a global proportion. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or useful antiviral drug against it. Natural products hold potential for discovery of anti-RSV agents. The present study assessed the anti-RSV activities of Alchornea cordifolia (AC) (Shumach. and Thonn.) Mϋll. Arg. and Alchornea floribunda (AF) Mϋll. Arg., Antiviral activities of AC and AF leaf extracts were evaluated by a modified viral plaque reduction assay. Parallel assays for effect of the antiviral agents on cell viabilities were carried out the cells using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assays. Mechanism of anti-RSV action of the extracts was done based on time-of-addition assay. Extracts of AC and AF, showed anti-RSV activities with IC50 = 5.64 ± 1.16, and 75.62 ± 3.38 µg/ml, respectively while the cell cytotoxic effect of extracts were TC50 = 103.14 ± 3.98, and 333.82 ± 6.32 µg/ml, respectively. Time-of-addition assay results suggested that AC and AF interfere with viral replication at a viral post-entry step. The extracts of AC and AF exhibited profound anti-RSV activities warranting their development for further possible clinical utility against RSV.

Key words: Alchornea cordifolia, Alchornea floribunda, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), antiviral, time-of-addition, cell culture.