African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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Article Number - 82EDE8255250


Vol.12(47), pp. 582-590 , December 2017
DOI: 10.5897/AJPP2017.4871
ISSN: 1996-0816



Full Length Research Paper

A comparative anti-inflammatory evaluation of fresh ginger extracts from China and Ghana identifies L-valine as a diagnostic biomarker



Raphael N. Alolga
  • Raphael N. Alolga
  • State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 639 Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198, China.
  • Google Scholar
Enos Mais
  • Enos Mais
  • State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 639 Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198, China.
  • Google Scholar
Vitus Onoja
  • Vitus Onoja
  • Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 16 November 2017  Accepted: 12 December 2017  Published: 22 December 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The quality of botanicals has been reported to be influenced by their places of cultivation. Although, ginger remains a common health remedy both in Ghana and China, no comparative study exists to the best of the authors’ knowledge, on the anti-inflammatory properties of ginger from these two countries. The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic extracts of fresh ginger samples from Ghana and China and identify biomarker(s) that is/are diagnostic of acute inflammation via untargeted metabolomics. A phytochemical assessment of the ginger extracts was initially performed with high performance liquid chromatography- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q/TOF-MS). Low (200 mg/kg) and maximum (400 mg/kg) doses the ginger extracts from each country were assessed using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats against groups for positive (indomethacin, 10 mg/kg) and negative controls (no drug). Blood samples were taken from the retro orbital vein at four time points: 1, 4, 8 and 24 h after induction of inflammation. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined in the plasma samples. The metabolomics study was also performed with HPLC-QTOF/MS and the data analyzed with MetaboAnalyst 3.0 and SIMCA 14.1. Phytochemical evaluation revealed marked differences in terms of the compounds deemed to have anti-inflammatory activities in the ginger samples from the two countries. Ginger extract from Ghana showed superior anti-inflammatory effects over that from China. In the metabolomics study, L-valine was identified as the diagnostic biomarker of acute inflammation from 8 differential metabolites identified. 
 
Key words: Anti-inflammatory effects, biomarker, ginger, China, Ghana, L-valine, metabolomics.

Abbreviation:

SD, Sprague-Dawley; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; HPLC/QTOF-MS, high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; OPLS-DA, orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis; VIP, variable importance in projection; ANOVA, analysis of variance; ACN, acetonitrile; NR, normal rats; NC, negative control; SIMCA, soft independent modelling by class analolgy.


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APA Alolga, R. N., Mais, E., & Onoja, V. (2017). A comparative anti-inflammatory evaluation of fresh ginger extracts from China and Ghana identifies L-valine as a diagnostic biomarker. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 12(47), 582-590.
Chicago Raphael N. Alolga, Enos Mais and Vitus Onoja. "A comparative anti-inflammatory evaluation of fresh ginger extracts from China and Ghana identifies L-valine as a diagnostic biomarker." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12, no. 47 (2017): 582-590.
MLA Raphael N. Alolga, Enos Mais and Vitus Onoja. "A comparative anti-inflammatory evaluation of fresh ginger extracts from China and Ghana identifies L-valine as a diagnostic biomarker." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12.47 (2017): 582-590.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJPP2017.4871
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/82EDE8255250

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