African Journal of Plant Science
Subscribe to AJPS
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 563D05461979

Vol.10(12), pp. 258-268 , December 2016
ISSN: 1996-0824

 Total Views: 0
 Downloaded: 0

Full Length Research Paper

Estimation of growth rate and biomass production of native savanna forage shrub species

Ziblim Abukari Imoro
  • Ziblim Abukari Imoro
  • Department of Range and Wildlife Management, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Oppong Samuel Kingsley
  • Oppong Samuel Kingsley
  • Department of Wildlife and Range Management, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Danquah Emmanuel
  • Danquah Emmanuel
  • Department of Wildlife and Range Management, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar

 Received: 26 September 2016  Accepted: 17 November 2016  Published: 31 December 2016

Copyright © 2016 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

The growth and long-lived growth patterns observed in many Savanna shrubs may be advantageous for survival in harsh physical environment. This study was conducted to estimate the growth potential and biomass yield of Securinega virosa, Cajanus cajan, Stylosanthes mucronata and Tephrosia purpurea in the northern region of Ghana. A total of 16 experimental beds of size 4 x 4 m with 1 m spacing between beds were constructed. Observation after sowing was made daily to record emergence. Plant growth parameters were taken fortnightly for 13 weeks on four representative plants randomly selected from each species. The biomass production data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) assuming a complete randomised design. C. cajan had the highest germination of 75% observed from 3-5 days after planting, while S. virosa recorded the least germination of 63% observed from 5-8 days after planting. C. cajan and T. purpurea had the highest growth rate, while S. virosa showed very low growth rate. S. mucronata had the largest mean stem diameter, followed by C. cajan and T. purpurea and S. virosa being the smallest. Similarly, S. mucronata obtained the highest mean number of shoots followed by S. virosa, while T. purpurea had the least. Linear and positive relationships were observed among plant height, stem diameter and number of shoots of all the shrubs. No significant difference in mean total dry matter yield among the shrub species and among the different maturity stages was recorded. All the shrubs except S. virosa produced seeds. Livestock farmers are encouraged to adopt and integrate these shrubs in their farming system to provide adequate forage to boost animal production.


Key words: Indigenous shrubs, animal feed, germination, plant growth, biomass yield.

Anten NP, Casado‐Garcia R, Nagashima H (2005). Effects of mechanical stress and plant density on mechanical characteristics, growth, and lifetime reproduction of tobacco plants. Am. Nat. 166(6):650-660.


Babatoundé S (2005) Etude et prédiction de la valeur alimentaire de graminées et de légumineuses fourragères en zone tropicale humide du Bénin. Thèse doct. Sci. Agron. Fac. Univ. Sci. Agron. Gembloux, Belgique, 165 p.


Ben-Salem H, Abdouli H, Nefzaoui A, El-Mastouri A, an Ben-Salem L (2005) Nutritive value, behaviour and growth of Barbarine lambs fed on oldman saltbush (Atriplex nummularia L.) and supplemented or not with barley grains or spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis) pads. Small Rumin. Res. 59:229-237.


Cerrillo RMN, Oyonarte PB (2006) Estimation of above-ground biomass in shrubland ecosystems of southern Spain. Investigación agraria. Sistemas y recursos forestales. 15(2):197-207.


Cobbina J, Atta-Krah AN, Meregini AO, Duguma B (1990). Productivity of some browse plants on acid soils of southeastern Nigeria. Trop. Grassl. 24:41-45.


Cornelissen J H C, Lavorel S, Garnier E, Diaz S, Buchmann N, Gurvich DE, Pausas J G (2003). A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Aust. J. Bot. 51(4):335-380.


Dong X, Zhang X (2001). Some observation of the adaptations of sandy shrubs to the arid environment in the Mu Us Sandland: leaf water relations and anatomic features. J. Arid. Environ. 48:41-48.


Duivenbooden NV, Pala M, Studer C, Bielders CL (1999). Efficient soil water use: the key to sustainable crop production in the dry areas of West Asia, and North and Sub-Sahara Africa (No. 631.451 DUI. CIMMYT.), 496 p.


Gholami A, Shahsavani S, Nezarat S (2009). The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on germination, seedling growth and yield of maize. WASET 49:19-24.


Henry HA, Thomas SC (2002). Interactive effects of lateral shade and wind on stem allometry, biomass allocation, and mechanical stability in Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae). Am. J. Bot. 89(10):1609-1615.


Hewitt N (1998). Seed size and shade tolerance: a comparative analysis of North American temperate trees. Oecologia 114:432-440.


IPCC (1996). Climate change 1995: impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of climate change. Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of working group II of the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press.


Kolawole OT, Abiona FE, Kolawole SO, Ayankunle AA, Olaniran OI (2011). Effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on normal and alloxan diabetic rats. Int. J. Pharmacol. 7(4):532-535.


Larbi A, Anyanwu NJ, Oji U I, Etela I, Gbaraneh L D, Ladipo DO (2005). Fodder yield and nutritive value of browse species in west African humid tropics: response to age of coppice regrowth. Agrofor. Syst. 65:197-205.


Larbi A, Khatib-Salkini A, Jamal PB, Iniguez L (2009). Shrub yield and fodder quality variations in a non-tropical dryland environment in West Asia. Agrofor. Syst. 75(2):147-155.


Lopez J, France J, Dijkstra J, Dhanoa MS (2000). Model to interpret degradation profiles obtained from in vitro and in situ incubation of ruminant feed. In. Modeling nutrient utilization in farm animals. Eds. McNamara, J.P., France, J. and Beever, D.E 2000. CAB International, UK.


Lusk CH (1995). Seed size, establishment sites and species co-existence in a Chilean rain forest. J. Veg. Sci. 6:249-256.


Mannetje L't (2000). Measuring biomass of grassland vegetation. Field and Laboratory Methods for Grassland and Animal Production Research. Mannetje, L.'t., and R. M. Jones, ed. C.A.B.I. Publishing. Univ. Press., Cambridge, UK. Pp. 151-177.


Milberg BP, Lamont BB (1997). Seed/cotyledon size and nutrient content play a major role in early performance of species on nutrient-poor soils. New Phytol. 137:665-672.


Moles AT, Westoby M (2006) Seed size and plant strategy across the whole life cycle. Oikos 113:91-105.


Montes N, Gauquelin T, Badri W, Bertaudiere V, Zaoui YE (2000) A non-destructive method for estimating aboveground forest biomass in threatened woodlands. For. Ecol. Manage. 130:(1-3):37-46.


Mut Z, Akay H, Aydin N (2010) Effects of seed size and drought stress on germination and seedling growth of some oat genotypes (Avena sativa L.). Afr. J. Agric. Res. 5(10):1101-1107.


Nabuurs GJ, Mohren GMJ (1995). Modelling analysis of potential carbon sequestration in selected forest types. Can. J. For. Res. 25:1157-1172.


Naidu RD, Jones NB (2007). Effect of seed size on field survival and growth of Eucalyptus in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South. Hemisphere For. J. 69(1):19-26.


Niklas KJ, Enquist BJ (2002). Canonical rules for plant organ biomass partitioning and annual allocation. Am. J. Bot. 89(5):812-819.


Oppong S K, Kemp PD, Douglas GB (2008). Browse shrubs and trees as fodder for ruminants: A review on management and quality. J. Sci. Technol. 28(1):65-75.


Osunkoya OO, Omar-Ali K, Amit N, Dayan J, Daud DS, Sheng TK (2007). Comparative height–crown allometry and mechanical design in 22 tree species of Kuala Belalong rainforest, Brunei, Borneo. Am. J. Bot. 94(12):1951-1962.


Palmer B, Ibrahim TM (1996). Calliandra calothyrsus forage for the tropics- a current assessment. In: D. O. Evans (ed) International Workshop on the genus Calliandra, Bogor, Indonesia, Winrock International, Morrilton, USA. Pp. 183-194.


Partey ST (2011). Effect of pruning frequency and pruning height on the biomass production of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray. Agrofor. Syst. 83(2)181-187.


Perez J, Mendelez F (1998). The effect of height and frequency of defoliation on formation of buds in Leucaena leucocephala in the state of Mexico. Trop. Anim. Prod. 5:280.


Sharma KK, Sood OP (1990). Germination behaviour of seeds of Leucaena leucocephala as influenced by various treatments and seed sizes. Van Vigyan 28(3):99-105.


Singh V, Shah VK (1992). Effect of seed weight on germination and seedling growth in Silver fir (Abies pindrow) . Van Vigyan 30:104-106.


Stougaard RN, Xue Q (2005). Quality versus quantity: spring wheat seed size and seeding rate effects on Avena fatua interference, economic returns and economic thresholds. Weed Res. 45(5):351-360.


Swaminathan C, Srimathi P (1994). Importance of seed management on germination and seedling growth of four tropical legumes, Range Manage. Agrofor. 15(1):43-47.


Wharton EH, Griffith DM (1993). Methods to estimate total forest biomass for extensive inventories: applications in the north-eastern US USDA Forest service Research Paper. USA, 681.


Yang Bo-gang, Zhang Baohong--gang, Feng Zhong-ke, Han Guang-shun (2008). Algorithm on branches number of a tree based on extended fractal square root law. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. 37(Part B4):551-553.


Ziblim AI, Abdul-Rasheed S, Aikins TK (2015). Forage species used by livestock in the Kumbungu District of the Northern Region, Ghana. UDS Int. J. Dev. Stud. 1(1):18-29.



APA Imoro, Z. A., Kingsley, O. S., & Emmanuel, D. (2016). Estimation of growth rate and biomass production of native savanna forage shrub species. African Journal of Plant Science, 10(12), 258-268.
Chicago Ziblim Abukari Imoro, Oppong Samuel Kingsley and Danquah Emmanuel. "Estimation of growth rate and biomass production of native savanna forage shrub species." African Journal of Plant Science 10, no. 12 (2016): 258-268.
MLA Ziblim Abukari Imoro, Oppong Samuel Kingsley and Danquah Emmanuel. "Estimation of growth rate and biomass production of native savanna forage shrub species." African Journal of Plant Science 10.12 (2016): 258-268.

Subscription Form