International Journal of
Biodiversity and Conservation

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Biodivers. Conserv.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-243X
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJBC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 539

Full Length Research Paper

Diversity and morphological characterization of Musa spp. in North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

Sivirihauma Charles
  • Sivirihauma Charles
  • Université Catholique du Graben (UCG), Butembo, North Kivu Province, DR, Congo.
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Ocimati Walter
  • Ocimati Walter
  • Bioversity International, Uganda Office, P. O. Box 24384, Kampala, Uganda.
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Valimuzigha Kambale
  • Valimuzigha Kambale
  • Université Catholique du Graben (UCG), Butembo, North Kivu Province, DR, Congo.
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Karamura Deborah
  • Karamura Deborah
  • Bioversity International, Uganda Office, P. O. Box 24384, Kampala, Uganda.
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Adheka Joseph
  • Adheka Joseph
  • University of Kisangani (UNIKIS), Kisangani, Oriental Province, DR, Congo.
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Ibanda Bonaventure
  • Ibanda Bonaventure
  • University of Kisangani (UNIKIS), Kisangani, Oriental Province, DR, Congo.
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Dhed’a Benoit
  • Dhed’a Benoit
  • University of Kisangani (UNIKIS), Kisangani, Oriental Province, DR, Congo.
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Kamira Muller
  • Kamira Muller
  • Bioversity International, Bukavu, South Kivu Province, DR, Congo.
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Blomme Guy
  • Blomme Guy
  • Bioversity International, Addis Ababa office, P. O. Box 5689, Ethiopia.
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  •  Received: 02 April 2017
  •  Accepted: 25 August 2017
  •  Published: 31 October 2017

Abstract

Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo constitutes an area where the East African Highland bananas (Musa-AAA-EA) and plantains (Musa-AAB) meet. However, Musa diversity in this region has never been characterized nor represented in national or international collections, yet increasing human activities and build-up of pests and diseases, especially Xanthomonas wilt of banana and banana bunchy top disease, could negatively affect this diversity. This study assessed, collected and morphologically characterized on-farm Musa diversity in the North Kivu and Ituri provinces. Musa accessions collected were added to the UCG-Butembo in situ field collection. A total of 90 and 150 farms were assessed, respectively, in the North Kivu and Ituri provinces. High Musa variability was observed in both provinces. Forty-one cultivars (six presumed new) were identified in Ituri Province compared to 38 cultivars (13 presumed new) in North Kivu Province. Nineteen cultivars occurred in both provinces. Beni and Lubero territories in North Kivu and Mambasa territory in Ituri Province had greater Musa diversity, varying between 27 and 38 cultivars, approximately double of the number of cultivars observed in the other territories. Twenty-three of the 34 Musa descriptors contributed more to the discrimination of the cultivars identified across the provinces and were therefore used for grouping the cultivars using principal component analysis (PCA). The Morisita index of similarity between Ituri Province and North Kivu Province territories was less than 0.5, suggesting dissimilarity in diversity between these sites. Six cultivars: ‘Kirisirya’, ‘Pakuma’, ‘Nziravahima’, ‘Vuhindi’, ‘Tundu’ and ‘Kisubi musa’ were reportedly at risk of genetic erosion.

Key words: Banana, conservation, cultivars, ex-situ, genetic erosion, genotypes, plantain.