International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation
Subscribe to IJBC
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - A85FB4264795


Vol.9(7), pp. 256-264 , July 2017
DOI: 10.5897/IJBC2017.1097
ISSN: 2141-243X



Full Length Research Paper

The influence of some ecological factors on drill monkeys Mandrillus leucophaeus (Cuvier) - in Limbe wildlife center (LWC), Southwest Region, Cameroon



Melle Ekane Maurice
  • Melle Ekane Maurice
  • Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of science, University of Buea, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi
  • Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi
  • Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of science, University of Buea, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Tim Killian Lengha
  • Tim Killian Lengha
  • Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of science, University of Buea, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 25 March 2017  Accepted: 24 May 2017  Published: 31 July 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The influence of ecological factors on the behavioral pattern in animals is attracting research interest, particularly for drill monkeys. The aim of this study was to check if ecological changes influence behavior of captive drill monkeys. The study was carried out in Limbe Wildlife Center (LWC) from May 15th 2016 to August 15th 2016 while scan and focal samples were collected in mixed strategy. Continuous sampling started from 6:00 in the morning and ended at 6:30 in the evening, where the following behavioral categories were recorded: feeding, foraging, movement, resting, socialization, grooming, play, aggression and vocalization. Simultaneously, data were recorded on weather changes. Data analysis in this survey comprised of the descriptive and inferential statistics. The study showed a significant difference for the daily activity at different time ranges (X2=172.282 df =24 P<0.05). There was no significance between 6:8.59 am to 12:2.59 pm for foraging (X2=0.103 df =1 P=0.749). In addition, there was significance on foraging from 12 am to 2.59 pm and 3 to 6:30 pm (X2=9.607 df =1 P<0.002). The drills spent more time resting between 6 to 8.59 am and 12 to 2.59 pm (X2=6.164 df =1 P<0.013). There is a significance for feeding between 6 to 8.59 am and 3 to 6.30 pm for (X2=85.63 df =1 P<0.05). The results show that the drills spent more time feeding in the morning period than in the evening period of the day, but correlated with foraging behavior. There is a positive correlation between resting and weather changes (rain and sun) R2=0.11 P<0.05. All the age sex class categories spent less time foraging. (X2=12 df =1 P<0.05) is for time resting during the wet and (X2= 94.6 df=1 P<0.05) for sunny weather. This study revealed that ecological factors like weather and photo-period influence the behavior of drill monkeys in captivity.

Key words: Weather changes, wildlife, vocalization, habitat, behavior.

Altmann J (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behavior 48:227-265.
Crossref

 

Altmann J, Schoeller D, Altmann SA, Muruthi P, Sapolsky RM (1993). Body size and fatness of free-living baboons reflect food availability and activity levels. Am. J. Primatol. 30:149-161.
Crossref

 

Astaras C (2009). Ecology and Status of the Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) in Korup National Park, Southwest Cameroon: Implications for Conservation. PhD thesis, Georg-August University of Gottingen pp. 36.

 

Campos FA, Fedigan LM (2009). Behavioral adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 138:101-111.
Crossref

 

Carlstead K (1996). Effects of captivity on the behavior of wild mammals. In: Kleiman D, Allen M, Thompson K, Lumpkin S, editors. Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Pp. 317-333.

 

Chalmers N (1979). Social Behavior In Primates. London: Edward Arnold (Publisher) Limited.

 

Clutton-Brock TH, Harvey PH (1985). Species differences in feeding and ranging behaviour in primates. In: Clutton-Brock TH, editor. Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes. London: Academic Press. Pp. 557-584.

 

Defler TR (1995). The time budget of a group of wild woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). Int. J. Primatol.16(1):107-120.
Crossref

 

Di Fiore A, Rodman PS (2001). Time allocation patterns of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii). Int. J. Primatol. 22(3):449-480.
Crossref

 

Dunbar RIM (1992). Time: a hidden constraint on the behavioural ecology of baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31, 35–49.
Crossref

 

Eadie JM, Semel B, Sherman PW (1998). Conspecific brood parasitism, population dynamics, and the conservation of cavity-nesting birds. in T. Caro, ed. Behavioral ecology and conservation biology. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 306-340.

 

Else JG (1991). Nonhuman primates as pest. In: Box, H.O. (ed). Primates Responses to Environmental Change. Pp. 115-165.
Crossref

 

Gursky S (2000). Effect of seasonality on the behavior of an insectivorous primate Tarsius spectrum. Int. J. Primatol. 21:477-495.
Crossref

 

Hardy D (1996). Current Research Activities in Zoos. In: Kleiman D, Allen M, Thompson K, Lumpkin S, editors. Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Pp. 531-536.

 

Harrison RM, Dukelow WR (1973). Seasonal adaptation of laboratory maintained squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). J. Med. Primatol. 2:277-283.

 

Hill RA (2006). Thermal constraints on activity scheduling and habitat choice in baboons. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 129:242-249.
Crossref

 

Isbell LA, Young TP (1993). Seasonal and ecological influences on activity budgets of vervet monkeys and their implications for group living. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 32:377-385.
Crossref

 

Korstjens AH, Lehmann J, Dunbar RIM (2010). Resting time as an ecological constraint on primate biogeography. Anim. Behav. 79(2):361-74.
Crossref

 

Krebs JR, Davies NB (1993). An introduction to behavioral ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London.

 

Majolo B, MacFarland R, Young C, Qarro M (2013). The effect of climatic factors on the activity budgets of Barbary macaques(Macaca sylvanus). Int J Primatol 34:500–514
Crossref

 

Martin P, Bateson P (1993). Measuring Behavior: An Introductory Guide. 2nd Edn., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN: 978-0521535632, Pp. 238.
Crossref

 

Martin P, Bateson P (2007). Measuring behavior: An introductory guide( 3rd Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crossref

 

Md-Zain BM, MY Yen, IA Ghani (2008b). Daily activity budgets and enrichment activity effect on Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in captivity. Sains Malaysiana, 37:15-19.

 

Oates JF (1987). Food distribution and foraging behavior. In "Primate Societies" (B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, T.T. Struhsaker, Eds.), pp. 197-209. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

 

Oates JF, Butynski TM (2008). Mandrillus leucophaeus. IUCN Red List of threatened species. 

View

 

Passamani M (1998). Activity budget of geoffroy's marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi) in an Atlantic forest in Southeastern Brazil. Am. J. Primatol. 46:333-340.
Crossref

 

Payton RW (1993). Ecology, altitudinal zonation and conservation of tropical rainforest of Mt Cameroon. Report to the Overseas Development Administration, London. Pp. 251.

 

Rod PMK (1992). Primates of the World. London. Blandford Villiers House.

 

Sachser N, Dürschlag M, Hirzel D (1998). Social Relationships and the Management of Stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology 23:891-904.
Crossref

 

Satinoff E (2011). Behavioral thermoregulation in the cold. Compr. Physiol.14:481-505.
Crossref

 

Sato H (2012). Diurnal resting in brown lemurs in a dry deciduous forest, E8 GUAN, et al. Zoological Research www.zoores.ac.cn northwestern Madagascar: implications for seasonal thermoregulation. Primates 53(3):1-9.

 

Silk JB, Beehner JC, Bergman TJ, Crockford C, Engh AL, Moscovice LR, Wittig RM, Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL (2009). The benefits of social capital: close social bonds among female baboons enhance offspring survival. Proc. R Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 276:3099-3104.
Crossref

 

Singh M, Vinathe S (1990). Inter Differences in the Time Budgets of Bounet Monkeys (Macaca radiata). Primates 31:589-596
Crossref

 

Smuts B, Cheney D, Seyfarth R, Wrangham R, Struhsaker T (1987). Primate societies. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

 

Umapathy G, Kumar A (2000). The demography of the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) in rain forest fragments in the Animalai Hills, South India. Primates 41:119-126.
Crossref

 


APA Maurice, M. E., Fuashi, N. A., & Lengha, T. K. (2017). The influence of some ecological factors on drill monkeys Mandrillus leucophaeus (Cuvier) - in Limbe wildlife center (LWC), Southwest Region, Cameroon. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 9(7), 256-264.
Chicago Melle Ekane Maurice, Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi and Tim Killian Lengha. "The influence of some ecological factors on drill monkeys Mandrillus leucophaeus (Cuvier) - in Limbe wildlife center (LWC), Southwest Region, Cameroon." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 9, no. 7 (2017): 256-264.
MLA Melle Ekane Maurice, Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi and Tim Killian Lengha. "The influence of some ecological factors on drill monkeys Mandrillus leucophaeus (Cuvier) - in Limbe wildlife center (LWC), Southwest Region, Cameroon." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 9.7 (2017): 256-264.
   
DOI 10.5897/IJBC2017.1097
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/A85FB4264795

Subscription Form