International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture
Subscribe to IJFA
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 5A46CF642045


Vol.5(11), pp. 278-285 , November 2013
DOI: 10.5897/IJFA2013.0374
ISSN: 2006-9839



Full Length Research Paper

Effect of varying stocking density of bottom feeder fish Cirrhinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio on growth performance and fish yield in polyculture system



Muhammad Ahmad
  • Muhammad Ahmad
  • Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Google Scholar
Sumaira Abbas
  • Sumaira Abbas
  • Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Google Scholar
Arshad Javid
  • Arshad Javid
  • Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Google Scholar
Muhammad Ashraf
  • Muhammad Ashraf
  • Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Google Scholar
Khalid Javed Iqbal
  • Khalid Javed Iqbal
  • Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Google Scholar
Hamda Azmat
  • Hamda Azmat
  • Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Google Scholar
Tariq Khan
  • Tariq Khan
  • Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Google Scholar
Sajid Mahmood
  • Sajid Mahmood
  • Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Google Scholar
Rizwan Haider
  • Rizwan Haider
  • Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Google Scholar







 Accepted: 18 November 2013  Published: 30 November 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The present project was planned to study gradual replacement of Cirrhinus mrigala with Cyprinus carpio and its impact on pond ecosystem. A total of 900 fishes belonging to six species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophythylmichthys molitrix and Cyprinus carpio were stocked in four earthen ponds. The dimensions of each pond were 220 × 198 × 7 feet length, breadth and depth. The stocking density in pond 1 (T1) was C. catla 150, L. rohita 200, C. mrigala 200, C. idella 150, H. molitrix 150 and C. carpio 50. The stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in pond 2 (T2) was 150 and 100, in pond 3 (T3), 100 and 150 and in pond 4 (T4) it was 50 and 200, respectively while the stocking density of all the other four fish species remained constant in all the four ponds. All the fish were fed with a diet of 25.16% crude protein at 2% body weight. C. idella and C. mrigala showed maximum growth in T1, C. catla and H. molitrix in T2, L. rohita and C. carpio in T3. Maximum growth was observed in T3 followed by T4, T1 and T2. Among fish species C. idella and C. carpio showed higher growth rates than the rest of fish species. Our results reveal that in polyculture system stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in a ratio of 1: 1.5 gives better results.

Key words: Aquaculture, freshwater, phytoplankton, zooplankton, exotic fish.

Acosta BO, Gupta MV (2005). The status of introduced carp species in Asia. In Carp genetic resources for aquaculture in Asia (Eds) D.J. Penman, M.V. Gupta,M.M. Dey, The World Fish Center, Penang. Malaysia, pp. 121-128.
 
Ahmad N, Ahmed I, Saleem M, Ashraf M (2008). Effect of different levels of mineral phosphorus with and without nitrogen on the dry weight of planktonic biomass, increase in fish production and biomass conversion efficiencies. Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 45:122-128.
 
Ali SMA, Azeem A, Shafiq M, Khan BA (2000). Studies on the effect of seasonal variations on physical and chemical characteristics of mixed water from River Ravi and Chenab at union site in Pakistan. J. Res. 11:11-17.
 
Anras MLB, Beauchaud M, Juell JE, Coves D, Lagardere JP (2001). Environmental factors and feed intake: rearing systems. Food Intake in Fish. 1st ed. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, Aquaculture, Eds., pp. 158–188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470999516.ch7
 
Ansa EJ, Jiya J (2002). Effects of pig manure on the growth of Oreochromis niloticus under integrated fish cum pig farming system. J. Aqua. Sci. 17(2):85-88.
 
Azad MAK, Rahman MR, Rahman Z, Kader MA, Haque MM Alam MJ. (2004). Polyculture of carp, tilapia and pangas using low cost inputs. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 7(11):1918-1926.
 
Bhakta JN, Bandyopadhyay PK, Jana BB (2006). Effect of different doses of mixed fertilizer on some biogeochemical cycling bacterial population in carp culture pond. Turk. J. Fish. Aqua. Sci. 6:165-171.
 
Bhakta JN, Sarkar D, Jana S, Jana BB (2004). Optimizing fertilizer dose for rearing stage production of carps under polyculture. Aquaculture 239:125-139.
 
Boyd CE (1982). Water Quality Management for Pond Fish Culture. Elsevier Scientific animal wastes as pond fertilizers. Aquac. Int. 4(2):143-155.
 
Chakrabarti NM (1998). Biology, Culture and Production of Indian Major Carps. Fisheries Scientist in Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India. P: 175.
 
Chandra DP, Ayyappan S, Jena J (2005). Comparative changes in water quality and role of pond soil after application of different levels of organic and inorganic inputs. Aquac. Res. 36:785:143-155.
 
Daniels HV, Boyd CE (1989). Chemical budgets for polyethylene-lined, brackishwater ponds. J. World Aquac. Soc. 20:53-60.
 
Dey MM, Rab MA, Paraguas FJ, Piumsombun S, Ramachandra B, Alam MF, Mahfuzuddin A (2005). Fish consumption and food security: a disaggregated analysis by types of fish and classes of consumers in selected Asian countries. Aquac. Econ. Manage. 9(1/2). 89 - 111.
 
DOF (2005). Fishery Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh 2003–2004. Fisheries Resources Survey System, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Matshya Bhaban, Dhaka, pp 46.
 
Garg SK, Bhatnagar A (2000). Effect of fertilization frequency on pond productivity and fish biomass in still water ponds stocked with Cirrhinus mrigala. Aquac. Res. 31:409-414.
 
Ghazala R, Tabinda AB, Yasar A (2011). Growth response of juvenile grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) fed isocaloric diets with variable protein levels. Journal Anim. Plant Sci. 21(4):850-856.
 
Hassan AAR (2011). Zooplankton as natural live food for three different fish species under concrete ponds with mono-and polyculture conditions. Egyptian J. Aquac. 1:1.
 
Hepher B, Pruginin Y (1981). Commercial Fish Farming.JohnWiley and Sons, New York. P. 261.
 
Horner GH, Rosenthal H, Kruner G (1987). Fluctuation of water quality during the experimental rearing of juvenile Sarotherodon galilaeus. J. Aquac. Trop. 2:273-276.
 
Hussain M, Hussain SM, Afzal M, Raza SA, Hussain N, Mubarik MS (2011). Comparative study of replacement of maize gluten with rice bran (3:1 and 1:3) feed supplement: effect on fish growth in composite culture. Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 48(4):321-326.
 
Hussein MS (2012). Effect of feed, manure and their combination on the growth of Cyprinus carpio fry and fingerlings Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish. 16(2):153–168.
 
Hyslop EJ (1982). The feeding habits of 0+ stone loach (Noemacheilus barbatulus) and bullhead (Cottus gobio). J. Fish. Biol. 21:187-196.
 
Jain Z (2002). Status of carp varieties under culture in China. Aquac. Asia 7(1):27-28.
 
Jha P, Barat S, Nayak CR (2006). A comparison of growth, survival rate and number of marketable koi carp produced under different management regimes in earthen ponds and concrete tanks. Aquac. Int. 14:615-626.
 
Kang'ombe JJ, Brown A, Halfyard LC (2006). Effect of using different types of organic animal manure on plankton abundance and on growth and survival of Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger) in ponds. Aquac. Res. 37:1360-1371.
 
Lammens EHRR (1984). A comparison between the feeding of white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and bream (Abramis brama). Vert. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22:886-890
 
Lutz CC (2003). Polyculture: principles, practices, problems and promise. Aquaculture Magazine March/ April 29(2):34-39.
 
Miah MS, Uddin MS, Shah MS (1993). Effects of artificial feed in carp'spolyculture system. Bangladesh J. Agric. Sci. 20:359–364.
 
Milstein A, Alkon A, Avnimelech Y, Kochba M, Hulata G, Schroeder G. (2003). Effect of manuring rate on ecology and fish performance in polyculture ponds. Aquaculture 96:119–138.
 
Milstein A, Wahab MA, Rahman MM (2002). Environmental effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio and Cirrhinus mrigala as bottom feeders in major Indian carp polycultures. Aquacult. Res. 33: 1103- 1107.
 
Milstein A (1992). Ecological aspects of fish species interactions in polyculture ponds. Hydrobiologia 231:177–186.
 
Miranda-Filho KC, Wasielesky WJR, Macada AP. (1996). The effect of ammonia and nitrite on the growth of mullet, Mugil platanus (pisces, Mugilidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 55:45-50.
 
Mohanty UK (1995). Comparative evaluation of growth and survival of Indian major carp fry in aerated vis-àvis non-aerated ponds under different stocking densities. M.F.Sc. Thesis. Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India. P. 123.
 
New M, Fedoruk K (2003). Reports on the Regional Workshop on Aquaculture Planning in Asia, Bangkok, Thialand. P. 154.
 
Noor EL, Deen AIE, Mona SZ (2010). Impact of climatic changes (oxygen and temperature) on growth and survival rate of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Rep. Opin. 2:192-195.
 
Northcote TG (1988). Fish in the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems view. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:361-379.
 
Parkos III JJ, Santucci Jr, Wahl DH (2003). Effects of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on multiple trophic levels in shallow mesocosms. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60:182-192.
 
Parvez MS, Sarker MS, Azad MS, Salequzzaman M (2006). Effect on water quality, pond productivity and growth of carps in polyculture system by using homestead organic wastage as pond manure. Int. J. Sustain. Agric. Tech. 2(2):45-49.
 
Ponce Palafox JT (2010). The effect of chemical and organic fertilization on phytoplankton and fish production in carp polyculture system. Revista Biociencias Julio 1(1):44-50.
 
Poxton MG, Allouse SB (1987). Cyclical fluctuations of ammonia and nitrite nitrogen resulting from feeding of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus in recirculating systems. Aquacult. Eng. 6:301-322.
 
Poxton MG Loyd NJ (1989). Fluctuations in ammonia production by eels (Angulla anuilla) as a result of feeding strategy. Aquaculture Society, Bredene, Belgium, pp. 1125-1135.
 
Rahman MM, Verdegem MCJ, Nagelkerke LAJ, Wahab MA , Milstein A , Verreth JAJ (2006) Growth, production and food preference of rohu Labeo rohita (H.) in monoculture and in polyculture with common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) under fed and non-fed ponds. Aquaculture 257:359–372.
 
Rahman MM (2006). Food Web Interaction and Nutrients Dynamics in Polyculture Ponds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University the Netherlands. P.157.
 
Rask M (1989). The diet of roach and some other cyprinids in the northern Baltic Sea. Aqua Fenn. 19:19-27.
 
Roberts J, Chick A, Oswald L, Thompson P (1995). Effect of carp, Cyprinus carpio an exotic benthivorous fish, on aquatic plants and water quality in experimental ponds. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 46:1171-1180.
 
Robotham PWJ (1982). An analysis of specilized feeding mechanism of the spined loach (Cobitis taenia) and a description of the related structures. J. Fish. Biol. 20:173-181.
 
Sheikh BA Sheikh SA (2004). Aquaculture and integrated farming system. Pak. J. Agric. Agric. Eng. Vet. Sci. 20(2):52-58.
 
Sibbing FA (1988). Specializations and limitations in the utilization of food resources by the carp (Cyprinus carpio). a study of oral food processing. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22:161-178.
 
Siddiqui AQ, Al-Harbi AH (1999). Nutrient budgets in tanks with different stocking densities of hybrid tilapia. Aquaculture 170:245-252.
 
Sinha M, Saha PK (1998). Efficiency of a commercial fish feed for composite fish culture. J. Inland Fish. Sec. India 12:51-55.
 
Spataru P, Hepher B, Helevy A (1980). The effect of the method of supplementary feed application on the feeding habits of carps (Cyprinus carpio) with regard to natural food in ponds. Hydrobiologia 72:171–178.
 
Spataru P, Wohlfarth GW, Hulata G (1983). Studies on the natural food of different fish species in intensively manured polyculture ponds. Aquaculture 35: 283-298
 
Abbas S, Iftikhar A, Muhammad S, Khalil-Ur-Rehman (2010). Comparative Effects of Fertilization and Supplementary Feed on Growth Performance of Three Fish Species. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 12(2):276–280.
 
Takamura N, Li JL, Yang HQ, Zhu XB, Miura T (1993). A novel approach to evaluate feeding by mixed cyprinid species in a Chinese integrated fish culture pond using measurements of of chloro- phyll derivatives and photosynthesis in gut con- tents. Can. J. Fish. Aqua. Sci. 50:946–952.
 
Terziyski D, Grozev G, Kalchev R, Stoeva A (2007). Effect of organic fertilizer on plankton primary productivity in fish ponds. Aquac. Int. 15:181-190.
 
Van Keulen H, Seligman NG (1987). Simulation of water use nitrogen nutrition and growth of spring wheat crop. Pudoc, Wageningen. P. 310.
 
Wahab MA, Rahman MM, Milstein A (2002).The effect of common carp, Cyprinus carpio and mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) as bottom feeders in major Indian carp polycultures. Aquac. Res. 33:547–556.
 
Winkel EH (1987). Chirinomid larvae and their food web relations in the littoral zone of lake maarseveen, PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam. P. 145.

 


APA (2013). Effect of varying stocking density of bottom feeder fish Cirrhinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio on growth performance and fish yield in polyculture system. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 5(11), 278-285.
Chicago Muhammad Ahmad, Sumaira Abbas, Arshad Javid, Muhammad Ashraf, Khalid Javed Iqbal, Hamda Azmat, Tariq Khan, Sajid Mahmood and Rizwan Haider. "Effect of varying stocking density of bottom feeder fish Cirrhinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio on growth performance and fish yield in polyculture system." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture 5, no. 11 (2013): 278-285.
MLA Muhammad Ahmad, et al. "Effect of varying stocking density of bottom feeder fish Cirrhinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio on growth performance and fish yield in polyculture system." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture 5.11 (2013): 278-285.
   
DOI 10.5897/IJFA2013.0374
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/5A46CF642045

Subscription Form