International Journal of
Fisheries and Aquaculture

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Fish. Aquac.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9839
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJFA
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 195

Full Length Research Paper

Genetic relationships between captive and wild subpopulations of Arapaima gigas (Schinz, in Cuvier, 1822)

Carlos Henrique dos Anjos dos Santos
  • Carlos Henrique dos Anjos dos Santos
  • Universidade Nilton Lins (UNINILTONLINS), Laboratório de Genética Aplicada à Aquicultura and Biologia Molecular, Avenida Professor Nilton Lins, Flores, 69058-030, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.
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Carolina Sousa de Sá Leitão
  • Carolina Sousa de Sá Leitão
  • Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Laboratório de Ecofisiologia e Evolução Molecular (LEEM), Avenida André Araújo, 2936, Aleixo, 69060-001, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil
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Maria de Nazaré Paula e Silva
  • Maria de Nazaré Paula e Silva
  • Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Laboratório de Ecofisiologia e Evolução Molecular (LEEM), Avenida André Araújo, 2936, Aleixo, 69060-001, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil
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Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida e Val
  • Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida e Val
  • Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Laboratório de Ecofisiologia e Evolução Molecular (LEEM), Avenida André Araújo, 2936, Aleixo, 69060-001, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil
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  •  Received: 24 February 2014
  •  Accepted: 10 September 2014
  •  Published: 29 October 2014

Abstract

Arapaima gigas, also known as pirarucu, is endemic to the Amazon basin. There is currently considerable effort being made to cultivate this species to reduce pressure on natural populations. We characterized the diversity and genetic structure of subpopulations of wild and captive A. gigas based on 19 microsatellite loci. Captive subpopulations of A. gigas exhibited less diversity than wild individuals. We also verified the existence of outlier loci under selective pressure in both subpopulations, indicating the occurrence of local adaptation in some individuals of A. gigas. Furthermore, we identified a high-level genetic structure among the subpopulations, with no mixing between subpopulations. The lack of mixing between populations, the local adaptation, and the genetic structure indicate that these subpopulations should be managed and isolated to prevent captive individuals from escaping into the wild, which would reduce the diversity of the wild subpopulations. We suggest a program for the genetic management of captive subpopulations to avoid the random loss of genetic variability and the selection of characteristics that are undesirable for commercial and conservation purposes.

 

Key words: Allelic diversity, osteoglossidae, conservation and management, heterezygosity, osteoglossiformes.