International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture
Subscribe to IJFA
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - EA8D3BE61531


Vol.8(11), pp. 105-111 , November 2016
DOI: 10.5897/IJFA2016.0570
ISSN: 2006-9839



Full Length Research Paper

Analysis of growth performance and haematological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus fed on a varying diet of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf meal as an additive protein source



Ian Bbole*
  • Ian Bbole*
  • National Aquaculture Research and Development Centre, Kitwe, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
Chanda Mumba
  • Chanda Mumba
  • National Aquaculture Research and Development Centre, Kitwe, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
Nephter Mupenda
  • Nephter Mupenda
  • Chilanga Aquaculture Station, Chilanga, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
Alexander Shula Kefi
  • Alexander Shula Kefi
  • Department of Fisheries Headquarters, Chilanga, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 03 May 2016  Accepted: 12 August 2016  Published: 30 November 2016

Copyright © 2016 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The objective of the current study was to investigate the growth performance and haematological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus fed on four different diets at different Moringa oleifera leaf meal inclusion levels over a period of 33 weeks. The results indicate that Moringa leaf meal causes depressed growth in fish but may increase the immunity of the fish to fight infections and diseases. The four inclusion levels used were: 0% (No Moringa - control), 5, 10 and 15%. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference in the final weight of fish in the control diet versus the other three treatments. The Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Mean Weight Gain (MWG) and Condition Factor showed no significant (p>0.05) difference among the fish fed with the four diets. However, the SGR and MWG were highest in the control fish followed by 15% then 10% and lastly 5%. The Gonadal Somatic Index, Hepatosomatic Index and Cardiosomatic Index were not significantly (p>0.05) different among the four treatments. The mean values of haematological parameters showed no significant (p>0.05) difference among the fish fed on the four diets. However, the Mean Cell Haemoglobin in 15% Moringa diet was significantly different from the control diet. White Blood Cells were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05) though high values were observed in treatments with Moringa inclusion. The study has shown that inclusion of Moringa to the fish diet results in depressed growth but it improves the immunity of the fish because of an increase in White Blood cells.  Further studies to explore the use of Moringa in fish diets at rates which do not cause depressed growth but improve immunity are recommended.

Key words: Growth performance, haematological parameters, Moringa oleifera, Oreochromis niloticus, protein source.

Ayoola SO, Kuton MP, Shokefun O (2013). An Evaluation of Nutritional Quality and Haematological Parameters of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Lam leaves in the diet of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Agrosearch 13(1):1-15.
Crossref

 

Bittencourt NLR, Molinari LM, Scoaris DO, Pedroso RB, Nakamura CV, Nakamura TU, Filho BAA, Filho BPD (2003). Haematological and Biochemical values for Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in semi – intensive system. Maringà 25(2):385-389.

 

Bolger J, Connolly PL (1989). The selection of suitable indices for the measurement and analysis of fish condition. J. Fish Biol. 34:171-182.
Crossref

 

CCAC (Canadian Council on Animal Care) (1989). Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, Volume 2. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Council on Animal Care.

 

De Pedro N, Guijarro AI, López-Pati-o MA, Martínez-Álvarez R, Delgado MJ (2005). Daily and seasonal variations in haematological and biochemical parameters in the tench, Tinca tinca Linnaeus. 1758. Aquaculture Res. 36(12):1185-1196.
Crossref

 

De Silva SS, Anderson TA (1995). Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture. Chapman and Hall, Melbourne.

 

Dienye HE, Olumuji OK (2014). Growth performance and Haematological Responses of African mud Catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal. Net J. Agric. Sci. 2(2):79-88.

 

Duncan DB (1955). Multiple range tests. Biometrics. 11:1-42.
Crossref

 

El-Sayed AFM (2006). Tilapia culture. CABI Publishing,UK.
Crossref

 

FAO (2012). State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012. Rome- Italy.

 

Gabriel UU, Akinrotimi OA, Eseimokumo F (2011). Haematological Responses of Wild Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus after Acclimation to Captivity. Jordan J. Biol. Sci. 4(4):225-230.

 

Hlophe SN, Moyo NAG (2014). Replacing Fishmeal with Kikuyu Grass and Moringa Leaves: Effects on Growth, Protein Digestibility, Histological and Haematological Parameters in Clarias gariepinus. Turk. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 14:795-806.

 

Hrubec TC, Cardinale JL, Smith SA (2000). Hematology and Plasma Chemistry Reference Intervals for Cultured Tilapia (Oreochromis Hybrid). Vet. Clin. Pathol. 29(1).
Crossref

 

Kefi AS, Kang'ombe J, Kassam D, Katongo C (2013). Effect of 17 ἀ-Methyl Testosterone on Haematology and Histology of Liver and Heart of Oreochromis andersonii (Castelnau, 1861). J. Marine Sci. Res. Dev. 3:130.

 

Keri AI, Aziz BA, Abol-Munafi AB (2012). Haematological Changes in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed with Varying Dietary Maltose Levels. World J. Fish Marine Sci. 4(4):376-381.

 

Madalla N, Agbo NW, Jauncey K (2013). Evaluation of Aqueous Extracted Moringa Leaf Meal as a Protein Source for Nile Tilapia Juveniles. Tanzania J. Agric. Sci. 12(1):53-64.

 

Mehdi H, Khan N, Iqbal KJ, Rasool F, Chaudhry MS, Khan KJ (2016). Effect of Moringa oleifera meal on the growth, body composition and nutrient digestibility of Labeo rohita. Int. J. Biosci. 8(4):11-17.

 

Moyo B, Masika PJ, Hugo A, Muchenje V (2011). Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10(60):12925-12933.
Crossref

 

Ncha OS, Michael PB, Nnabuchi UO, Alex E (2015). Effect of diets with Moringa leaf meal on growth, carcass composition and haematology of Clarias gariepinus. Int. J. Fisheries Aquatic Stud. 3(2):397-401.

 

Olaniyi CO, Ajani NO, Adetomi MN (2013). Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Clarias gariepinus Fed Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal. J. Natural Sci. Res. 3(8).

 

Olsen RL, Hasan MR (2012). A limited supply of fishmeal: impact on future increases in global aquaculture production. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 27(2):120-128.
Crossref

 

Ozovehe BN (2013). Growth Performance, Haematological Indices and Some Biochemical Enzymes of Juvenile Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fed Varying Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diet. J. Aquatic Res. Dev. 4:166.

 

Ozovehe BN, Nzeh GC (2013). Effects of varying levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal diet on growth performance, hematological indices and biochemical enzymes of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Elixir Aquaculture 57A:14459-14466.

 

Rehulka J (2003). Haematological and biochemical analysis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchusmykiss affected by Viral Haemerrhagic Septicaemia (VHS). Dis. Aquat. Org. 56:186-193.
Crossref

 

Richter N, Siddhuraju P, Becker K (2003). Evaluation of nutritional quality of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves as alternative protein source for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture. 217:599-611.
Crossref

 

Ricker WE (1975). Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bull. Fish Res. Bd. Can. 191:209-210.

 

Sadekarpawar S, Parikh P (2013). Gonadosomatic and Hepatosomatic Indices of freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus in response to a plant nutrient. World J. Zool. 8(1):110-118.

 

Wedemeyer GA, Yasutake WT (1977). Clinical methods for the assessment of the effects of environmental stress on fish health. United States Fish and Wildlife Service Technical Papers 89.

 

WinFeed (2006). Users guide. WinFeed (UK) Ltd., Cambridge, UK. 

View

 


APA Bbole, I., Mumba, C., Mupenda, N., & Kefi, A. S. (2016). Analysis of growth performance and haematological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus fed on a varying diet of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf meal as an additive protein source. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 8(11), 105-111.
Chicago Ian Bbole, Chanda Mumba, Nephter Mupenda and Alexander Shula Kefi. "Analysis of growth performance and haematological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus fed on a varying diet of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf meal as an additive protein source." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture 8, no. 11 (2016): 105-111.
MLA Ian Bbole, et al. "Analysis of growth performance and haematological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus fed on a varying diet of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf meal as an additive protein source." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture 8.11 (2016): 105-111.
   
DOI 10.5897/IJFA2016.0570
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/EA8D3BE61531

Subscription Form