International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology
Subscribe to IJGMB
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - E57519E41334

Vol.5(6), pp. 71-77 , November 2013
DOI: 10.5897/IJGMB2013.0071
ISSN: 2006-9863

Full Length Research Paper

Low genetic diversity of Hypophthalmus marginatus from the Tocantins River based on cytochrome b sequence data


Emil José Hernández-Ruz1, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves2, Artur Silva3 and Maria Paula Cruz Schneider3


1Laboratório de Zoologia, Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará/UFPA, Campus Universitário de Altamira, Rua Coronel José Porfírio, 2515 CEP 68.372-040 - Altamira - PA, Brazil.

2Laboratório de Tecnologia Biomolecular, Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Rua Augusto Corrêa, 01, Guamá, Belém, Pará, Brasil, 66075-900.

3Laboratório de Polimorfismo de DNA, Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Rua Augusto Corrêa, 01, Guamá, Belém, Pará, Brasil, 66075-900.


 Accepted: 19 August 2013  Published: 30 November 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


In this study, we used a portion of mitochondrial cytochrome b to evaluate the current genetic structure of the Hypophthalmus marginatus Valenciennes 1840, from the Tocantins River in the eastern Amazonia. Genetic diversity was measured in two downstream (Abaetetuba and Cametá), and two upstream (Tucuruí and Itupiranga) stocks under influence of the Tucuruí Hydroelectric Dam. Additionally, one stock from the Araguaia River system was included in the analysis. Our findings provide evidence for the existence of reduced levels of genetic diversity in H. marginatus of the Tocantis basin. The pattern of distribution of haplotypes observed in the present study appears to reflect the migratory characteristics of H. marginatus (short distance migratory), suggesting gene flow mainly in the upstream to downstream. Alternatively, presence of rare sequences only in Cametá and Abaetetuba may result from recent mutations, since they differ from connecting haplotypes by only one nucleotide substitution.


Key words: Hydroelectric dam impact, Hypophthalmus marginatus, population genetic structure.


Agostinho AA, Júlio HF Jr, Borghetti JR (1992). Considerações sobre os impactos dos represamentos na ictiofauna e medidas para sua atenuação - um estudo de caso: reservatório de Itaipu. Rev. UNIMAR. 14:89-107.
Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Röhl A (1999). Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Mol. Biol. Evol. 16:37-48.
Barthem R, Lambert M, Petrere M (1991). Life strategies of some long-distance migratory catfish in relation to hydroelectric/dams in the Amazon Basin. Biol. Conserv. 55:339-345.
Bermingham E, McCafferty SS, Martin AP (1997). Fish biogeography and molecular clocks: Perspectives from the Panamanian Isthmus. In:Kocher TD, Stepien CA (eds.). Molecular. Systematics of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 113-128.
Bohonak AJ (2002). IBD (Isolation By Distance): a program for analyses of isolation by distance. J. Hered. 93:153-154.
Carvalho JL, Mérona B (1986). Estudos sobre dois peixes migratórios do baixo Tocantins, antes do fechamento da barragem de Tucuruí. Amazoniana 9:595-607.
Cetra M, Petrere M (2001). Small-scale fisheries in the middle River Tocantins, Imperatriz (MA), Brazil. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 8:153-162.
Excoffier L, Lischer HEL (2010). Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Mol. Ecol. Resour. 10:564-567.
Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM (1992). Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genet. 131:479-491.
Fearnside PM (1999). Social impacts of Brazil's Tucuruí Dam. Environ. Manage. 24:485-495.
Fu YX (1997). Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking, and background selection. Genet. 147:915-925.
Hall TA (2007). Bioedit v709: Biological sequence alignment editor analysis program for Windows 95/98/Nt. Nucl. Acids. Symp. Ser. 41:95-98.
Hardman M, Lundberg JG (2006). Molecular phylogeny and chronology of diversification for ''phractocephaline" catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear recombination activating gene sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40:410-418.
Leite RAN, Bittencourt MM (1991). Impacto de hidrelétricas sobre a ictiofauna amazônica: O exemplo de Tucuruí. In: Val AL, Figiuolo R and Feldberg E (eds.). Bases Científicos para Estratégias de Preservação e Desenvolvimento da Amazônia: Fatos e Perspectivas. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus. 1:85-100
Manly BFJ (1997). Randomization, Bootstrap and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology. 399 p. Chapman & Hall, London.
Mantel NA (1967). The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res. 27:209-220.
Mérona B, Carvalho JL, Bittencourt MM (1987). Les effets immédiats de la fermeture du barrage de Tucuruí (Brésil) sur l'ichtyofaune en aval. Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 20:73-84.
Odinetz-Collart O (1993). Ecologia e potencial pesqueiro de camarão-canela, Macrobrachium amazonicum, na Bacia Amazônica. In: Ferreira EJG, GM Santos, Leão ELM, Oliveira LA (eds.). Bases Científicas para Estratégias de Preservação e Desenvolvimento da Amazônia. Vol 2. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus. pp. 147-166.
Palumbi SR (1996). Nucleic acid II: the polymerase chain reaction. In: Hillis DM, Morits C, Mable BK (eds.). Molecular Systematics Sunderland, Sinauer. pp 205-247.
Raufaste N, Rousset F (2001). Are partial mantel tests adequate? Evolutn. 55:1703-1705.[1703:APMTA]2.0.CO;2
Ribeiro MCLB, Petrere M, Juras AA (1995). Ecological integrity and fisheries ecology of the Araguaia-Tocatins River Basin, Brazil. Regul. Rivers Res. & Manage. 11:325-350.
Rocha LA, Robertson DR, Roman J, Bowen BW (2005). Ecological speciation in tropical reef fishes. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 272:573-579.
Rogers AR, Harpending HC (1992). Population growth makes waves in the distribution of pairwise genetic differences Mol. Biol. Evol. 9:552-569.
Rozas J, Sánchez-DelBarrio JC, Messeguer X, Rozas R (2003). DNAsp, DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods. Bioinformatics 19:2496-2497.
Ruban GI (1997). Species structure, contemporary distribution and status of the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii. Eniviron. Biol. Fis. 48:221-230.
Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989). Molecular cloning: A Laboratory Manual 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA.
Santos GM, Mérona B, Juras AA, Jégu M (2004). Peixes do baixo río Tocantins: 20 anos depois da Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí Brasília. ELETRONORTE. p. 216.
Santos S, Hrbek T, Farias IP, Schneider H, Sampaio I (2006). Population genetic structuring of the king weakfish, Macrodon ancylodon (Sciaenidae), in Atlantic coastal waters of South America: deep genetic divergence without morphological change. Mol. Ecol. 15:4361-4373.
Sivasundar A, Bermingham E, Ortí G (2001). Population structure and biogeography of migratory freshwater fishes (Prochilodus: Characiformes) in major South American rivers. Mol. Ecol. 10:407-418.
Torrico JP, Hubert N, Desmarais E, Duponchelle F, Nu-ez F, Rodriguez J, Montoya-Burgos J, García Dávila C, Carvajal-Vallejos FM, Grajales AA, Bonhomme F, Renno JF (2009). Molecular phylogeny of the genus Pseudoplatystoma (Bleeker 1862): Biogeographic and evolutionary implications. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 51:588-594.
Turner TF, Mcphee MV, Campbell P, Winemiller KO (2004). Phylogeography and intraspecific genetic variation of prochilodontid fishes endemic to rivers of northern South America. J. Fish Biol. 64:186-201.
Wei Q, Ke F, Zhang J, Zhuang P, Luo J, Zhou R, Yang W (1997). Biology, fisheries, and conservation of sturgeons and paddlefish in China. Environ. Biol. Fish. 48:241-255.
Willis SC, Nunes MS, Monta-a CG, Farias IP, Lovejoy NR (2007). Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of the Neotropical peacock basses Cichla (Perciformes: Cichlidae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 44:291-307.


APA (2013). Low genetic diversity of Hypophthalmus marginatus from the Tocantins River based on cytochrome b sequence data. International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology, 5(6), 71-77.
Chicago   Emil Jos&e Hern&andez-Ruz, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves, Artur Silva and Maria Paula Cruz Schneider. "Low genetic diversity of Hypophthalmus marginatus from the Tocantins River based on cytochrome b sequence data." International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology 5, no. 6 (2013): 71-77.
MLA Emil Joseacute; Hernaacute;ndez-Ruz, et al. "Low genetic diversity of Hypophthalmus marginatus from the Tocantins River based on cytochrome b sequence data." International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology 5.6 (2013): 71-77.
DOI 10.5897/IJGMB2013.0071

Subscription Form