International Journal of
Nutrition and Metabolism

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Nutr. Metab.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2332
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJNAM
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 112

Full Length Research Paper

Under nutrition and associated factors among adult on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Wolaita Sodo teaching and referral hospital, southern nation’s nationalities people’s region, Ethiopia

Lula Amza
  • Lula Amza
  • HIV/AIDS pervention and control expert at Wolaita sodo university, Ethiopia
  • Google Scholar
Tsegaye Demissie
  • Tsegaye Demissie
  • Wolaita sodo university, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Yoseph Halala
  • Yoseph Halala
  • Community nutrition at Addis Ababa university, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 16 November 2016
  •  Accepted: 26 January 2017
  •  Published: 28 February 2017


Malnutrition can be defined as a state of nutrition in which there is a deficiency, excess or imbalance of energy, protein and other nutrients. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of under nutrition and associated factors among adult on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Wolaita Sodo teaching and referral hospital, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross sectional study design was used among randomly selected 519 adult patients on HAART at Wolaita Sodo University referral Hospital. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire and weight and height measurements were taken to determine the levels of nutritional status. Data were entered on to Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for cleaning and further analysis. Both binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with nutritional status of people on HAART. Odds ratios along with 95%CI was estimated to measure the strength of association and p value less than 0.05 was used as a cut-off point to declare level of statistical significance. The magnitude of underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) was 26.6% 95%CI: (22.8 to 30.4%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that, not having food aid (AOR=2.76, 95%CI: (1.77-4.30)), low baseline CD4 count (AOR=2.12, 95%CI: (1.31-3.42)) being male (AOR=1.80, 95%CI: (1.10-2.93)) and lack of formal education (AOR=2.48, 95%CI: (1.48-4.17) were significantly associated with under nutrition. The burden of underweight was high among adult on HAART lack of food aid and formal education, decrease in CD4 count and male gender have influenced nutritional status of the study participants. Nutritional assessment, management and nutritional support and timely initiation of ART should be the key intervention during the course of chronic HIV care. Follow up and ART service provision monitoring are also important to improve the nutritional status of HIV/AIDS patient.

Key words: Under nutrition, body mass index (BMI), highly active antiretroviral therapy, underweight.


AIDS, Acquire immune deficiency syndrome; ART, anti retro viral treatment; ARV, anti-retro viral; BMI, body mass index; EDHS, Ethiopia Demography and Health Survey; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; HAART, highly active antiretroviral treatment; HIV, human    immune    deficiency    virus;   OI, opportunistic infection; PLWHA, people living with HIV AIDS;SNNPR, South National Nationality People of Region; SPSS, statistical package for social science; TB, tuberculosis; WFP, World Food Program; WHO, World Health Organization; WSU, Wolaita Sodo University.