International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Subscribe to IJNAM
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 9939DE064453


Vol.9(4), pp. 30-37 , May 2017
DOI: 10.5897/IJNAM2017.0218
ISSN: 2141-2332



Full Length Research Paper

Magnitude of double burden of malnutrition and its associated factors among selected in-school adolescents: Evidence from South Ethiopia



Dessalegn Ajema Berbada
  • Dessalegn Ajema Berbada
  • Arba Minch University, P. O. Box 21, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Jemal Haidar
  • Jemal Haidar
  • School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Gebrekiros Gebremichael
  • Gebrekiros Gebremichael
  • Arba Minch University, P. O. Box 21, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Desta Haftu
  • Desta Haftu
  • Arba Minch University, P. O. Box 21, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 11 April 2017  Accepted: 10 May 2017  Published: 31 May 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The coexistence of both under nutrition and over nutrition or known as double burden of malnutrition (DBM) is a recent emerging nutritional problem documented in most developing countries. In Ethiopia, though there are various studies documenting the magnitude of under-five children nutritional problem, there is a research gap on DBM among adolescents. To fill the identified gap, the extent of the problem among in-school adolescents was assessed. A school based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 634 high school adolescent students in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia from March 2015 to April 2015. Multi-stage sampling was employed to select the sampled participant. Following the school stratification by ownership as governmental and private, two schools were randomly selected from each category and the number of students were allocated proportionately. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and anthropometric measurements. Weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference measurements were taken from all participants using standard procedures. Data were entered into EPI-info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS, version21. The anthropometric data were converted into nutritional indices using WHO Anthro-Plus software, version 1.0.4. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were done using multinomial regression model. A total of 406 from the government and 228 from the private schools were enrolled in the assessment. The magnitude of underweight, and overweight and/or obesity were 19.7% (95%CI: 16.5%, 23.2%), and 11.2% (95%CI: 8.7%, 13.7%), respectively. Father educational and occupation status, family size and wealth index were significantly associated with underweight. The odds of being underweight among whose fathers’ had no formal education was 12 times [AOR=12; 95% CI=4 to 34], higher than those whose education level was above secondary. Those from family size of five or less were 80% times less likely to be underweight [AOR=0.2; 95% CI=0.12 to 0.4] than those whose family size was more than 5. Participants whose fathers’ occupation was merchant were 75% times less likely to be underweight than private work [AOR=0.25; 95%CI=0.09 to 0.6]. Wealth index quintile of lowest [AOR=9.4; 95% CI=3 to 29] and second [AOR=5; 95%CI=1.8 to14.9] were 5 times more likely to be underweight than their counterparts. This study revealed the coexistence of double burden of malnutrition among in-school adolescents. Parents’ education, family size and wealth index were some of the predictors which require the collaborative effort of health, education and social affair sectors to avert the prevailing problem in the community.

 

Key word: Magnitude, double burden of malnutrition, predictors, in-school community, rural Ethiopia.

Alemu E, Atnafu A, Yitayal, M, Yimam K (2014). Prevalence of overweight and/or obesity and associated factors among high school adolescents in Arada Sub city, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 4:2.
Crossref

 

Amare D, Negesse A, Tsegaye B, Assefa B, Ayenie B (2016). Prevalence of undernutrition and its associated factors among children below five years of age in Bure town, west Gojjam zone, amhara national regional state, northwest Ethiopia. Adv. Public Health 2016:7145708.
Crossref

 
 

Bull FC, Maslin TS, Armstrong T (2009). Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ): nine country reliability and validity study. J. Phys. Act. Health. 6:790-804.
Crossref

 
 

Cordeiro LS, Wilde PE, Semu H, Levinson FJ (2012). Household food security is inversely associated with undernutrition among adolescents from Kilosa, Tanzania. J. Nutr. 142:1741-1747.
Crossref

 
 

De Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J (2007). Development of a world health organization (WHO) growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents Bull. World Health Organ. 85(9):660-667.
Crossref

 
 

Ene-Obong H, Ibeanu V, Onuoha N, Ejekwu A (2012). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and thinness among urban school-aged children and adolescents in southern Nigeria. Food Nutr. Bull. 33:242-250.
Crossref

 
 

Funke OM (2008). Prevalence of underweight: A matter of concern among adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. Pakistan J. Nutr. 7:503-508.
Crossref

 
 

Garenne M (2010). Urbanisation and child health in resource poor settings with special reference to under-five mortality in Africa. Arch. Dis. Child. 95:464-468.
Crossref

 
 

Gebregergs G, Yesuf M, Beyen T (2013). Overweight and obesity, and associated factors among high school students in gondar town, North West Ethiopia. J. Obes. Wt Loss. Ther. 3:2.

 
 

Hazbun OM, Azcona C, Martínez JA, Martí A (2009). Management of overweight and obesity in adolescents: an integral lifestyle approach. Actividad Dietética 13:153-160.
Crossref

 
 

James W, Norum K, Smitasiri S, Swaminathan M, Tagwireyi J, Uauy R (2000). Ending Malnutrition by 2020: an Agenda for Change in the Millennium: Final Report to the ACC/SCN by the Commission on the Nutrition Challenges of the 21st Century. Supplement to the Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2000 September. Food Nutr. Bull. P 21.

 
 

Kelishadi R (2007). Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Epidemiol. Rev. 29:62-76.
Crossref

 
 

Kruger R, Kruger HS, Macintyre UE (2006). The determinants of overweight and obesity among 10- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in the North West Province, South Africa - the THUSA BANA (Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans; BANA, children) study. Public Health Nutr. 9:351-358.
Crossref

 
 

Massad S, Deckelbaum RJ, Gebre-Medhin M, Holleran S, Dary O, Obeidi M, Bordelois P, Khammash U (2012). Double burden of undernutrition and obesity in Palestinian Schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study. Lancet 380:S5-S6.
Crossref

 
 

Megabiaw B, Rahman A (2013). Prevalence and determinants of chronic malnutrition among under-5 children in Ethiopia. Int. J. Child Health Nutr. 2:230-236.
Crossref

 
 

Motlagh ME, Kelishadi R, Amirkhani MA, Ziaoddini H, Dashti M, Aminaee T, Ardalan G, Mirmoghtadaee P, Keshavarz S, Poursafa P (2011). Double burden of nutritional disorders in young Iranian children: findings of a nationwide screening survey. Public Health Nutr. 14:605-610.
Crossref

 
 

Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, Mullany EC, Biryukov S, Abbafati C, Abera SF (2014). Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 384:766-781.
Crossref

 
 

Noh JW, Kim YE, Park J, Oh IH, Kwon YD (2014). Impact of parental socioeconomic status on childhood and adolescent overweight and underweight in Korea. J. Epidemiol. 24:221-229.
Crossref

 
 

Suchindran C, North KE, Popkin BM, Gordon-Larsen P (2010). Association of adolescent obesity with risk of severe obesity in adulthood. JAMA 304:2042-2047.

 
 

Teshome T, Singh P, Moges D (2013). Prevalence and associated factors of overweight and obesity among high school adolescents in urban communities of Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia. Curr. Res. Nutr. Food Sci. J. 1:23-36.
Crossref

 
 

World Health Organization, (WHO) (2009). Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks.

 
 

World Health Organization, (WHO) (2012). Steps instrument for chronic disease risk surveillance. 2012.

 
 

Yibeltal T, Charles T, Uriyoan C (2000). The Rising Overweight-obesity and Its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Addis Ababa.Ethiopia. 2011 pp. 1-14.

 
 

Yohannes Z, Behailu T, Mekonnen A, Teshome M, Yeshitila S (2017). Malnutrition and associated factors among under five children (6-59 Months) At Shashemene Referral Hospital, West Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Curr. Pediatr. Res. 21(1):172-180.

 
 

Zeleke A (2009). Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity among elementary school students in Addis Ababa: Double burden of malnutrition in Ethiopia. Available at: 

View

 
 

Ziraba AK, Fotso JC, Ochako R (2009). Overweight and obesity in urban Africa: A problem of the rich or the poor? BMC Public Health. 9:465.
Crossref

 

 


APA Berbada, D. A., Haidar, J., Gebremichael, G., & Haftu, D. (2017). Magnitude of double burden of malnutrition and its associated factors among selected in-school adolescents: Evidence from South Ethiopia. International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 9(4), 30-37.
Chicago Dessalegn Ajema Berbada, Jemal Haidar, Gebrekiros Gebremichael and Desta Haftu. "Magnitude of double burden of malnutrition and its associated factors among selected in-school adolescents: Evidence from South Ethiopia." International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 9, no. 4 (2017): 30-37.
MLA Dessalegn Ajema Berbada, et al. "Magnitude of double burden of malnutrition and its associated factors among selected in-school adolescents: Evidence from South Ethiopia." International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 9.4 (2017): 30-37.
   
DOI 10.5897/IJNAM2017.0218
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/9939DE064453

Subscription Form