International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
Subscribe to IJPPB
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - CAC620611103


Vol.5(3), pp. 36-41 , September 2013
DOI: 10.5897/IJPPB11.064
ISSN: 2141-2162



Full Length Research Paper

Effects of 28-homobrassinolide on growth, photosynthesis and essential oil content of Satureja khuzestanica


Mahdi Eskandari* and Ali Eskandari




Young Researchers Club, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan Iran.


Email: khyal_sabz@yahoo.com






 Accepted: 08 August 2013  Published: 30 September 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Brassinosteroids are a group of plant hormones that have significant biological effects on plant growth and development. The effects of 28-homobrassinolide (HBR) on growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, carbohydrate fractions and essential oil content of savory herbs (Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad) were investigated. Foliar application of 28-homobrassinolide at 10-10, 10-8and 10-6 M concentrations substantially increased growth. 28-homobrassinolide at 10-6 M concentrations improved herbage yield as reflected in the increase of foliar biomass. Exogenous application of 28-homobrassinolide increased the rate of photosynthesis. Growth promotion was also associated with increased chlorophyll content and resulted in the accumulation of carbohydrate fractions. At 10-6 and 10-8 M concentrations, 28-homobrassinolide also incremented the total content of essential oils. The quantitative analysis of savory oil from the savory plant treated with 10-6 M concentration revealed an increase in carvacrol and para-cymene contents and a decrease in the γ-terpinene content. Collectively, the present study demonstrates a positive impact of the new group of phytohormones on the agronomic performance of savory plant, a highly valued aromatic plant.

 

Key words: Satureja khuzestanica, 28-homobrassinolide, growth, photosynthesis, essential oil, carbohydrates, chlorophylls, savory.

Abbreviation:

HBR, 28-Homobrassinolide; EBL, 24-epibrassinolide; BRs, brassinoesteroids.


 

Ali Q, Athar H, Ashraf M (2008). Modulation of growth, photosynthetic capacity and water relations in salt stressed wheat plants by exoge-nously applied 24-epibrassinolide. Plant Growth Regul. 56:107-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10725-008-9290-7
 
Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2003). Application of Brassinosteroids to Rice Seeds (Oryza sativa L.) Reduced the Impact of Salt Stress on Growth, Prevented Photosynthetic Pigment Loss and Increased Nitrate Reductase Activity, Plant Growth Regul. Vol. 40, pp. 29-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023080720374
 
Arnon DI (1949), Copper Enzyme in Isolated Chloroplasts:Polyphenol Oxidase in Beta vulgaris, Plant Physiol. Vol. 24, pp. 1-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.24.1.1
PMid:16654194 PMCid:PMC437905
 
Arteca JM, Arteca RN (2001) Brassinosteroid Induced Exaggerated Growth in Hydroponically Grown Arabidopsis Plants, Physiol. Plant. Vol. 112, pp. 104-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.2001.1120114.x
PMid:11319021
 
Asami T, Min YK, Nagata N, Yamagishi K, Takatsuto S, Fujioka S, Murofushi N, Yamaguchi T, Yoshida S, (2000).Characterization of Brassinozole, a Triazole-Type Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Inhibitor, Plant Physiol. vol. 123, pp. 93-100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.123.1.93
PMid:10806228 PMCid:PMC58985
 
Azaz D, Demirci F, Satil F, Kurkcuoglu M, Baser KH (2002). Antimicro-bial activity of some Satureja essentiale oils. Z.Naturforsch., 27: 17-821.
 
Bajguz A, Czerpak R (1998). Physiological and Biochemical Role of Brassinosteroids and Their Structure Activity Relationship in the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae), Plant Growth Regul. Vol. 17, pp. 131-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/PL00007026
 
Boyraz N, Ozcan M (2005). Inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by essential oil. Hydrosol, ground material and extract of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) growing wild in Turkey. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 107:238-242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.10.002
PMid:16330123
 
Chen Chu J, Di XM, Ju ZY (1996). Effect of Epibrassinolide on Cell Differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana, Acta Phytophysiol. Sinica. Vol. 22, pp. 399-403.
 
Davis NW, (1989). Gas Chromatography Retention Indices of Monterpenes and Sesquiterpenes on Methyl Silicone and Carbowax 20x Phases, J. Chromatogr. 503: 1-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)81487-4
 
Farooqi AHA, Sharma S (1988). Effect of Growth Retardants on Growth and Essential Oil Content in Japanese Mint, Plant Growth Regul. 7:39-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00121688
 
Farsam H, Amanlou M, Radpour MR, Salehinia AN, Shafiee A (2004). Composition of the essential oils of wild and cultivated Satureuja khuzistanica Jamzad from Iran. Flavour Fragr J. 19:308-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1300
 
Fukuta N, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Nakayama M (2002).A New Brassinosteroid-Deficient Mutant of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.), Plant Cell Physiol. 43: 184.
 
Hayat S, Ahmad A, Mobin M, Hussain A, Fariduddin Q (2000). Photo-synthetic rate, growth, and yield of mustard plants sprayed with 28-homobrassinolide. Photosynthetica. 38:469-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010954411302
 
Khripach VA, Zhabinskii VN, de Groot AE (2000). Twenty Years of Brassinosteroids: Steroidal Hormones Warrant Better Crops for the XXI Century, Ann. Bot. 86: 441-447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.2000.1227
 
Khripach VA, Zhabinskii VN, de Groot, AE (1999). Brassinosteroids – a New Class of Plant Hormones, San Diego: Academic.
 
Koka CV, Cerny RE, Gardner RG, Noguchi T, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Clouse SD (2000). A Putative Role for the Tomato Genes DUMPY and CURL-3 in Brassinosteroids Biosynthesis and Response, Plant Physiol. 122: 85-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.122.1.85
PMid:10631252 PMCid:PMC58847
 
Kovats E, (1965) Gas Chromatographic Characterization of Organic Substances in the Retention Index System, Adv. Chromatogr. 1: 229-247.
 
Loomis WE, Shull CA (1937). Methods in Plant Physiology, New York: McGraw-Hill.
PMid:17838964
 
Maia NB, Bovi OA, Zullo MAT, Perecin MB, Granja NP, Carmello QAC, Robaina C, Coll F (2004). Hydroponic Cultivation of Mint and Vetiver with Spirostane Analogues of Brassinosteroids, Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 644: 55-59.
 
McCready RM, Guggloz, VS, Owens HS (1950). Determination of Starch and Amylase in Vegetables.Application to Peas. Anal. Chem. 29: 1156-1158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac60045a016
 
Nelson N (1944). A Photometric Adaptation of the Somagyi Method for Determination of Glucose. J. Biol. Chem. 154:375-380.
 
Nomura T, Nakayama N, Reid JB, Takeuchi Y, Yokota T (1997). Blockage of Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis and Sensitivity Cause Dwarfism in Pisum sativum. Plant Physiol. 113: 31-37.
PMid:12223591 PMCid:PMC158112
 
Prakash M, Suganthi S, Gokulakrishnan J, Sabesan T (2008). Effect of homobrassinolide on growth, physiology and Biochemical aspects of sesame. Karnataka J Agric Sci. 20:110-112.
 
Ramaj VM, Uyas BN, Gordej NB, Mistry KB, Swami BN, Singh N (1997). Effect of 25-homobrassinolid on yields of wheat, rice, groundnut, mustard, potato and cotton. J. Agric. Sci.128:405-413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859697004322
 
Rao SSR, Vardhini BV, Sujatha E (2002). Anuradha, S., Brassinosteroids – New Class of Phytohormones. Curr. Sci. 82: 1239-1245.
 
Sadeghi- Nejad B, Shiravi F, Ghanbari S, Alinejad M, Zarrin M (2010). Antifungal activity of Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad) leaves extracts. Jundishapur J. Microbial. 3:36-40.
 
Sahin F, Karaman I, Gulluce M (2003). Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of Satureja hortensis L. J. Ethnopharmacol., 87:61-65
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00110-7
 
Schluter U, Kopke D, Altmann T, Mussing, C (2002). Analysis of Carbo-hydrate Metabolism of CPD Antisense Plants and the Brassino-steroid-Deficient cbbl Mutant. Plant, Cell Environ. 25: 783-791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2002.00860.x
 
Sefidkon F, Ahmadi S (2000).Essential oil of satureja khuzistanica jamzad. J. Essen. Oil Res. July-August, 12(4):427-428.
 
Shukla A, Farooqi AHA, Shukla YN, Sharma A (1992). Effect of Triacon-tanol and Chlormequat on Growth, Plant Hormones and Artemisinin Yield in Artemisia annua L. Plant Growth Regul. 11: 165-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00024071
 
Silva S, Sato A, Lage CLS, Gil RAS, Azevedo DA, Esquibel MA (2005). Essential Oil Composition of Melissa officinalis L. In Vitro Produced under the Influence of Growth Regulators. J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 16:1387-1390.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532005000800014
 
Silva S, Sato A, Lage CLS, Gil RAS, Azevedo DA, Esquibel MA (20050. Essential Oil Composition of Melissa officinalis L. In Vitro Produced under the Influence of Growth Regulators. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 16: 1387-1390.
 
Swamy KN, Rao, SSR. (2006). Influence of Brassinosteroids on Rooting and Growth of Geranium (Pelargonium sp.) Stem Cuttings. Asian J. Plant Sci. 5: 619-622.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2006.619.622
 
Vardhini BV, Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2006). Brassinosteroids– New Class of Plant Hormones with Potential to Improve Crop Productivity. Ind. J. Plant Physiol. 11: 1-12.
 
Vosovgh- Ghanbari S, Rahimi R, Kharabaf S, Zeinali S, Mohammadirad A, Amini S, Yasa N, Salehnia A, Toliat T, Nikfar S, Larijani B, Abdollahi M (2010). Effects of Satureja khuzestanica on serum glucose, lipids and Markers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double- bind randomized controlled trial. Evid.Based Complement Alternat. Med. 7:465-470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nen018
PMid:18955324 PMCid:PMC2892343
 
Yoshida S, Forno DA, Cock JH (1976). Gomez KA, Laboratory Physiological Studies of Rice, Phillipines, Lagena: Int. Rice Res. Inst. (IRRI).
 
Youssef AA, Talaat IM (1998). Physiological Effect of Brassinosteroids and Kinetin on the Growth and Chemical Constituents of Lavender Plant. Ann. Agric. Sci (Cairo) 43: 261–272.
 
Yu JQ, Huang LF, Hu WH, Zohn YH, Mao WH, Ye SF, Nogues S (2004). A Role for Brassinosteroids in the Regulation of Photosyn-thesis in Cucumis sativus, J. Exp. Bot. 55: 1135-1143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erh124
PMid:15107450
 
Yu JQ, Zhou YH, Ye SF, Hu ang LF (2002). 24-Epibrassinolide and Abscisic Acid Protect Cucumber Seedlings from Chilling Injury. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol. 77: 470-473.
 
Yu JQ, Zhou YH, Ye SF, Huang LF (2002). 24-epibrassinolide and abscisic acid protect cucumber seedlings from chilling injury. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 77:470-473.
 
Zarrin M, Amirrajab N, sadeghi- Nejad B (2010). In vivo antifungal activity of Satureja khuzestanica. Pak. J. Med. Sci., 26: 880-882.

 


APA (2013). Effects of 28-homobrassinolide on growth, photosynthesis and essential oil content of Satureja khuzestanica. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 5(3), 36-41.
Chicago Mahdi Eskandari and Ali Eskandari. "Effects of 28-homobrassinolide on growth, photosynthesis and essential oil content of Satureja khuzestanica." International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 5, no. 3 (2013): 36-41.
MLA Mahdi Esk, et al. "Effects of 28-homobrassinolide on growth, photosynthesis and essential oil content of Satureja khuzestanica." International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 5.3 (2013): 36-41.
   
DOI 10.5897/IJPPB11.064
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/CAC620611103

Subscription Form