International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Subscribe to IJWREE
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 3E6A1F51401


Vol.5(7), pp. 370-379 , July 2013
DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE2012.0381
ISSN: 2141-6613



Full Length Research Paper

Study of double breakpoints during chlorination of River Yamuna water, Delhi, India



Lokesh Kumar
  • Lokesh Kumar
  • 120 MGD Water Treatment Plant, Water Works Wazirabad, Delhi Jal Board, Municipal Water Supply Department, Government of NCT Delhi, Delhi 110054, India.
  • Google Scholar







 Accepted: 04 June 2013  Published: 31 July 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


 

A study on chlorination of raw Yamuna River water is reported in this study. Samples were chlorinated with increasing doses of standard chlorine water and residual chlorine (Cl2) was measured by Starch-Iodide method. For each sample, the chlorination curve (chlorine residual versus chlorine dose) was obtained. Curves showed the typical irregularity attributed to the formation and destruction of chloramines and transformation of toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) by chlorine. It was observed that, after reactions with strong reductants and chloramines forming compounds, the remaining organic matter exerted a certain demand of chlorine. The evolutions of chlorination curves were studied. Till date, study on breakpoint chlorination revealed only single breakpoint but, in present study single breakpoints during chlorination of raw waters were not established in many cases. Double breakpoints have been reported in this study. The evolutions of different breakpoint curves might be attributed to formation and destruction of numerous chemical disinfection by-products (DBPs) and biological bacteria/alga, due to variant pollution conditions of raw water.

 

Key words: Ammonia, breakpoint chlorination, cyanobacteria, chlorine, pollution, nitrite.

Alouini Z, Seux R (1988). Kinetics and Mechanisms of Hypochlorite Oxidation of Creatinine. Water Res. 22:1519-1526.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(88)90164-9
 
Arash Z, Lionel H, Gayle N, Heriberto B, Michele P (2012). Fate of toxic cyanobacterial cells and disinfection by- products formation after chlorination. Water Res. 46:1524-535.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.06.029
PMid:21820143
 
Atkins PF, Scherger DA, Barnes RA, Evans FL III (1973). Ammonia Removal by Physical-Chemical Treatment, J. WPCF 45(11):2372.
 
Banker R, Carmeli S, Werman M, Teltsch B, Porat R, Sukenik A (2001). Uracil moiety is required for toxicity of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health: Part A 62(4):281-288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/009841001459432
PMid:11245397
 
Baribeau H, Krasner SW, Chinn R, Singer PC (2005). Impact of biomass on the stability of HAAs and THMs in a simulated distribution system. J. Am. Water Works Ass. 97(2):69-81.
 
Calvert CK (1940). Treatment with Copper Sulfate, Chlorine, and Ammonia, J. AWWA. 32(17):1155.
 
Camp D, McKee R (1983). Final Operability Report, Final Advanced Waste Treatment Plant, County of Fairfax, Virginia, Lower Potomac Pollution Control Plant.
 
Chad TJ, Richard LV (1992). Reaction Scheme for the Chlorination of Ammoniacal Water. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26(3):577-586.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es00027a022
 
Chen WJ, Weisel CP (1998). Halogenated DBP concentrations in a distribution system. J. Am Water Works Assoc. 90(4):151-63.
 
Feben D, Taras MJ (1950). Chlorine Demand in Detroit Water. J. AWWA 42:453.
 
Feben D, Taras MJ (1951). Chlorine Demand Constants. J. AWWA. 43:922.
 
Griffin AE (1939). Reaction of Heavy Doses of Chlorine in Various waters. J. AWWA 31(12):2121.
 
Griffin AE, Chamberlin NS (1941). Some Chemical Aspects of Breakpoint Chlorination. J. N. Engl. Water Works Assoc. 55:371.
 
Hand VC, Margerum DW (1983). Kinetics and mechanisms of the decomposition of dichloramine in aqueous solution. Inorg. Chem. 12:1449-1456.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic00152a007
 
Jensen JN, Johnson JD (1989). Specificity of the DPD and Amperometric Titration Methods for Free Available Chlorine: A Review, J. AWWA 81(12).
 
Leao SL (1981), University of California, Berkeley. Ph.D. Thesis
 
Leung SW (1989). The University of Iowa, Iowa City. Ph.D. Thesis
 
Liang L, Singer PC (2003). Factors influencing the formation and relative distribution of haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes in drinking water. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37(13):2920-2928.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es026230q
PMid:12875395
 
Lomas PD (1967). Combined Chlorine residual of Swimming Pool Bath Water. J. Assoc. Public Anal. 5:27-36.
 
March JG, Gual M (2007). Breakpoint chlorination curves of grey water. Water Environ. Res. 79(8):828-832.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143007X156736
PMid:17824528
 
Newcombe G, Nicholson B (2004). Water treatment options for disolved cyanotoxins. J. Water Supply: Res. Technol.-AQUA 63(4):227-239.
 
Palin AT (1950). A Study of the Chloro Derivatives of Ammonia and Related Compounds, with Special Reference to Their Formation in the Chlorination of Natural and Polluted Waters, Water Wastewater Engr. 54:151-159, 189-100, 248-256.
 
Pressley TA, Bishop DF, Pinto AP, Cassel AF (1973). Ammonia-Nitrogen Removal by Breakpoint Chlorination. EPA report - 670/2-73-058.
 
Richardson SD (1998). Drinking water disinfection by-products. Ency. Environ. Anal. Remed. 3. John Wiley & Sons I; pp. 1398-1421.
 
Richardson SD, Thruston AD, Caughran TV, Chen PH, Collette TW, Schenck KM, Lykins BW, Rav-Acha C, Glezer V (2000). Identification of new drinking water disinfection by- products from ozone, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine. Water Air Soil Poll. 123(1–4):95-102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005265509813
 
Rodriguez MJ, Serodes JB (2001). Spatial and temporal evolution of trihalomethanes in three water distribution systems. Water Res. 35(6):1572-1586.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00403-6
 
Rodriguez MJ, Serodes JB, Levallois P (2004). Behavior of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in a drinking water distribution system. Water Res. 38(20):4367-4382.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2004.08.018
PMid:15556212
 
Rodríguez E, Sordo A, Metcalf JS, Acero JL (2007a). Kinetics of the oxidation of cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a with chlorine, monochloramine and permanganate. Water Res. 41(9):2048-2056.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.01.033
PMid:17353030
 
Rodríguez E, Onstad GD, Kull TPJ, Metcalf JS, Acero JL, von Gunten U (2007b). Oxidative elimination of cyanotoxins: Comparison of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate. Water Res. 41(15):3381-3393.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.03.033
PMid:17583762
 
Rook JJ (1974). Formation of haloforms during chlorination of natural waters. Water Treat Exam. 23(2):234-43.
 
Rossum JR (1943). A Proposed Mechanism for Break-point Chlorination. J. AWWA 35:1446.
 
Saunier BM, Selleck RE (1976). "Kinetics of Breakpoint Chlorination and of disinfection." SERL 98 Report No. 76-2, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
 
Senogles P, Shaw G, Smith M, Norris R, Chiswell R, Mueller J, Sadler R, Eaglesham G (2000). Degradation of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin, from Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, by chlorination. Toxicon 38(9):1203-1213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0041-0101(99)00210-X
 
Singer PC (1994). Control of disinfection by-products in drinking-water. J. Environ. Eng. 120(4):727-744.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(1994)120:4(727)
 
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (1992). 18th Edition pp. 4-78 Method 4500-NH3-C (Nesslerization Method), AWWA.
 
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (1999). Disinfectant use in water treatment. EPA Guidance Manual, Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants, pp. 2, 54.
 
Valentine R, Brandt KI, Jafvert CT (1986). A spectrophotometric study of the formation of an unidentified monochloramine decomposition product. Water Res. 20:1067-1074.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(86)90051-5
 
Valentine RL, Wilber GG (1990). In Water Chlorination: Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects; Jolley RL et al, Eds.; Lewis Publishers, Inc.: Chelsea, MI; 6:63.
 
Weil I, Morris JC (1949). Kinetic studies on Chloramines. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71:1664.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01173a033
 
Wei I, Morris JC (1974). Dynamics of Breakpoint Chlorination in Chemistry of Water Supply Treatment and Distribution. A.J. Rubin, ed. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ann Arbor Science.
 
White GC (1992). Handbook of Chlorination. 3rd ed.: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.
 
Williams DT, Benoit FM, Lebel GL (1998). Trends in levels of disinfection by-products. Environmetrics 9(5):555-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-095X(199809/10)9:5<555::AID-ENV323>3.0.CO;2-W

 


APA (2013). Study of double breakpoints during chlorination of River Yamuna water, Delhi, India. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 5(7), 370-379.
Chicago Lokesh Kumar. "Study of double breakpoints during chlorination of River Yamuna water, Delhi, India." International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 5, no. 7 (2013): 370-379.
MLA Lokesh Kumar. "Study of double breakpoints during chlorination of River Yamuna water, Delhi, India." International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 5.7 (2013): 370-379.
   
DOI 10.5897/IJWREE2012.0381
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/IJWREE/article-abstract/3E6A1F51401

Subscription Form