International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Subscribe to IJWREE
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 7A212EF1429

Vol.5(7), pp. 380-386 , July 2013
DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE2012.0408
ISSN: 2141-6613

Full Length Research Paper

Study of major and trace elements in groundwater of Birsinghpur Area, Satna District Madhya Pradesh, India

R.N. Tiwari
  • R.N. Tiwari
  • Department of Geology, Government P.G. Science College Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • Google Scholar
Shankar Mishra
  • Shankar Mishra
  • Department of Chemistry, P.G. College Semariya, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • Google Scholar
Prabhat Pandey
  • Prabhat Pandey
  • Department of Physics, Government P.G. Science College Rewa, Madhya Pradesh India
  • Google Scholar

 Accepted: 04 June 2013  Published: 31 July 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The present paper deals with major and trace elements geochemistry from the groundwater of Birsinghpur area, Satna district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Geologically, the area comprises sandstone and shale formations of the Proterozoic Upper Vindhyan Supergroup. The study reveals that the water is hard to very hard (The classification as hard to very hard is possibly based on incorrect analytical data); the elevated hardness is attributed to the calcareous nature of the aquifer. The concentrations of cations are characterized by Ca >Mg> Na> K. Elevated concentrations of calcium (possibly incorrect analytical data) in some localities are related to the aquifer lithology. Concentrations of magnesium, sodium and potassium are generally within the permissible limits. The concentration of anions are characterized by HCO3 > SO4 > Cl > NO3 >F. Bicarbonate and sulphate concentrations exceed the permissible limits in a few samples; elevated concentrations appear to be related to the aquifer lithology. The fluoride concentration exceeds the desirable limit in some areas; the elevated fluoride values are attributed to the application of chemical fertilizers in agriculture and to the occurrence of fluoride bearing minerals in shale formation. Six trace elements (Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mn, Cd) were also analysed. The iron concentrations ranged from 0.27 to 2.98 mg/L, exceeding the permissible limit in drinking water in 4% of the samples mainly in lateritic aquifers Nickel, and cadmium concentrations are well within the permissible limits. The manganese concentrations ranged from 0.20 to 0.282 mg/L, 30% of the samples exceeding the desirable limit: the elevated manganese concentrations are associated with iron ores (?) as well as lateritic mining. The elevated concentrations of trace elements are combined effects of geogenic sources as well as of mining activities and excessive use of chemical fertilizers. It is recommended to control anthropogenic activities adequately in order to minimise the pollution problems.


Key words: Major and trace elements, groundwater, Birsinghpur, Satna, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Applin KR, Zhao N (1989). The kinetics of Fe (II) oxidation and well screen encrustation. Groundwater 27:168-174.
Barzilay JI (1999). The water we drink: Water quality and its effect on health. New Brunswick New Jursey, Rutgers University Press, p. 152.
BIS (1991). Bureau of Indian Standard Specification for Drinking Water ISI : 10500.
Chiman L, Jiu JS (2006). Heavy metal and trace element distribution in groundwater in natural stops and highly urbanised spaces in Mid level area Howngkong. Water Res. 40(4):753-76.
Dart FJ (1974). The hazard of iron. Ottawa Water and Pollution Control, Canada.
Demirel Z (2007). Monitoring of heavy metal pollution of groundwater in a phreatic aquifer in Mersin-Turkey. Environ. Monit. Assess. 132(1-3):15-23.
Dixit RC, Verma SR, Nitna Ware V, Thackere NP (2003). Heavy metal contamination in surface and groundwater supply of an urban city. Indian J. Environ. Health 45(2):107-112.
Eugenia GG, Vicente A, Rafael B (1996). Heavy metals incidence in the application of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides to rice forming soils. Environ. Poll. 92:19-25.
Goel PK (1997). Water pollution causes effect and control. New Age International Publishers, p. 269.
Henphem DD, Wixson BG, Gale NL, Clevenger TE (1983). Dispersal of heavy metals into the environment as a result of mining activities. Proc. Int. Conf. Heavy Metals Environ. Heidelberg, pp. 917-924.
Khan MQMA, Umar R, Latch H (2010). Study of trace elements in groundwater of Uttar Pradesh, India. Sci. Res. Essays 5(20):3175-3182.
Krishna AK, Govil PK (2004). Heavy metal contamination of soil around Pal. industrial area, Rajasthan, India. Environ. Geol. 47:38-44.
Madhulakshmi L, Rauma A, Kannan N (2012). Seasonal distribution of some heavy metal concentrations in groundwater of Virudhunagar district, Tamilnadu, South India. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem. 11(2):32-37.
Moore CV (1973). Iron: Modern nutrition in health and disease, Philadelphia. Lea and Fiibeger, p. 297.
Nag SK, Ghosh P (2013). Variation in groundwater levels and water quality in Chhatna Block, Bankura district, West Bengal- A GIS approach. J. Geol. Soc. India. 81:262-280.
Reimanne C, Decaritat P (1998). Chemical elements in the environment. Springer Verlag, p. 398.
Robards M, Worsfold P (1991). Cadmium toxicology and analysis - A review: Analyst 116:549-560.
Sawyer CN, McCarty PL (1967). Chemistry for salinity engineers (2nd edn.). McGraw Hill, New York, p. 518.
Sharma BC, Mishra AK, Bhattarcharyya KG (2000). Metal in drinking water in a predominantly rural area. Indian J. Environ. Prot. 21(4):315-322.
Subba RN (2006). Seasonal variation of ground water quality in a part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ. Geol. 49:413-429.
Sudhakar MR, Mamatha P (2004). Water quality in sustainable water management. Curr. Sci. 87(7):942-947.
Tiwari RN (2011). Geochemical studies of Groundwater in Semariya Teheil, Rewa District Madhya Pradesh, India. Proc. Int. Groundwater Conf. Madurai, India, pp. 679-678.
Tiwari RN, Dubey DP (2012). A study of Bauxite deposit of Tikar Plateau Rewa district, M.P. Gond. Geol. Soc. sp. 13:111-118.
Todd DK (1985). Groundwater Hydrology. New York, John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Songapore, 535 p.
Vigneswaran S, Viswanathan C (1995). Water treatment process: Simple options, New York : CRC 11 p.
White AF, Benson SM, Yee AW, Woo LHA, Flexser S (1991). Groundwater contamination at the Kesterson reservoir, California – Geochemical parameters influencing selenium mobility. Water Resour. Res. 27:1085-1098.
WHO (1993) Guidelines for drinking water. Vol. 2, Recommendations, World Health Organization Geneva.


APA (2013). Study of major and trace elements in groundwater of Birsinghpur Area, Satna District Madhya Pradesh, India. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 5(7), 380-386.
Chicago R.N. Tiwari, Shankar Mishra and Prabhat Pandey. "Study of major and trace elements in groundwater of Birsinghpur Area, Satna District Madhya Pradesh, India." International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 5, no. 7 (2013): 380-386.
MLA R.N. Tiwari, et al. "Study of major and trace elements in groundwater of Birsinghpur Area, Satna District Madhya Pradesh, India." International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 5.7 (2013): 380-386.
DOI 10.5897/IJWREE2012.0408

Subscription Form