International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
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Article Number - 84F0E7762318


Vol.9(1), pp. 22-32 , January 2017
DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE2015.0615
ISSN: 2141-6613



Full Length Research Paper

Evidence based review of Legionella elimination in building water systems



M. D. Sedzro*
  • M. D. Sedzro*
  • Marine Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Regional Maritime University, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
R. A. Banu
  • R. A. Banu
  • Water Research Institute, Environmental Biology and Health, Accra, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
M. O. Akrong
  • M. O. Akrong
  • Water Research Institute, Environmental Biology and Health, Accra, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 26 September 2015  Accepted: 29 August 2016  Published: 31 January 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Legionnaires disease can be acquired through exposure to Legionella pneumophila, a gram-negative bacteria ubiquitous in both natural and engineered water systems. Over the years, a number of disinfection techniques notably, chlorination, ozonation, thermal, UV and copper-silver ionization have been employed across different kinds of engineered water systems with diverse measures of success. Available evidence portends, most of the aforementioned techniques often have to be combined to achieve long-term efficacy. Remarkably, albeit the extensive research and reportage on Legionnaires outbreak in the developed world, very few studies have been carried out with regards to Africa. We reviewed existing literature on the application of the aforementioned techniques in buildings. Our study concurs with earlier studies; most of the disinfection techniques will have to be combined to achieve the desired efficacy. We found very scanty studies on Legionella or reportage of its outbreak within Africa.  Our study also found very little in terms of any of the techniques been applied with the specific aim of reducing Legionella proliferation in engineered water systems within Africa. This is alarming, especially, on a continent where several communities have little or no access to quality water and healthcare. In light of the above, stronger measures such as sensitization, properly managed water distribution systems, as well as policies aimed at enforcing national and international guidelines on Legionella control is recommended. 

Key words: Legionnaires disease, water disinfection, engineered water system, Africa.

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APA Sedzro, M. D., Banu, R. A., & Akrong, M. O. (2017). Evidence based review of Legionella elimination in building water systems. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 9(1), 22-32.
Chicago M. D. Sedzro, R. A. Banu and M. O. Akrong. "Evidence based review of Legionella elimination in building water systems." International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 9, no. 1 (2017): 22-32.
MLA M. D. Sedzro, R. A. Banu and M. O. Akrong. "Evidence based review of Legionella elimination in building water systems." International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 9.1 (2017): 22-32.
   
DOI 10.5897/IJWREE2015.0615
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/IJWREE/article-abstract/84F0E7762318

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