African Journal of Bacteriology Research
Subscribe to JBR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 3737B8643264


Vol.6(1), pp. 7-12 , February 2014
DOI: 10.5897/JBR2013.0124
ISSN: 2006-9871



Full Length Research Paper

Antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile of Leuconostoc spp. isolated from carrot



Mohit Agarwal
  • Mohit Agarwal
  • Department of Microbiology, SBS P. G. Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Research, Balawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.
  • Google Scholar
F. C. Garg
  • F. C. Garg
  • Department of Microbiology, SBS P. G. Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Research, Balawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.
  • Google Scholar
Y. K. Negi*
  • Y. K. Negi*
  • Department of Basic Sciences, College of Forestry and Hill Agriculture, Ranichauri, District Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 12 December 2013  Accepted: 06 February 2014  Published: 28 February 2014

Copyright © 2014 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


In the present study, a total of 56 isolates were isolated from different root vegetables. Out of these, 17 isolates were identified as Leuconostoc spp. All the 17 isolates were checked for antibiotic sensitivity against different antibiotics. Results revealed that majority of the isolates were resistant to Penicillin G, Vancomycin, Oxacillin and Ceftazidime. Four isolates (S-9, S-13, S-37 and S-42) were resistant to methicillin. However, all the isolates were highly sensitive to Imipenum. Carbenicillin and Amoxicillin sublactam showed antibacterial sensitivity against all the isolates except S-13 and S-B2C2, respectively. Electrophorogram revealed that among the different 17 Leuconostoc isolates, S-B2C2 showed the presence of multiple plasmids (six) corresponding to the molecular weights of 1.5, 1.9, 2.0, 2.6, 3.2 and 10 kb, respectively. Endonuclease restriction analysis study was carried out with purified plasmid using four endonucleases (Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Hind III). Treatment with Alu I resulted in the disappearance of all the 6 plasmid bands, indicating complete digestion of the plasmids. Restriction analysis of plasmid DNA of isolate S-B2C2 revealed complete digestion of two plasmids (2.6 and 1.5 kb) when treated with Hind III. However, a new band of molecular weight equivalent to 1.7 kb did appear. Data presented in the paper indicates the multiple plasmid availability in bacteria and their diversity in response to restriction sites available on them.

Key words: Antibiotic resistance, plasmid, restriction digestion, root vegetables. 

Ammor MS, Florez AB, Mayo B (2007). Antibiotic resistance in non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Food Microbiol. 24:559-570.
Crossref
 
Anderson R (1984). Characterstics of the bacterial flora isolated during spontaneous lactic acid fermentation of carrots and red beets. Lebensm.-Wiss. Technol. 17:282-286.
 
Aslim B, Beyatli Y (2004). Antibiotic resistance and plasmid DNA contents of Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from Turkish yoghurts. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 28:257-263.
 
Belén Flórez A, Delgado S, Mayo B (2005). Antimicrobial susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a cheese environment. Can. J. Microbiol. 51:51-58.
Crossref
 
Benkerroum N, Misbah LM, Sandine WE, Elaraki AT (1993). Development and Use of a Selective Medium for Isolation of Leuconostoc spp. from Vegetables and Dairy Products. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:607-609.
Pubmed
 
Biet F, Cenatiempo Y, Fremaux C (2002). Identification of a replicon from pTXL1 Cryptic Plasmid from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides Y110 and Development of a Food-Grade Vector. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:6451-6456.
Crossref
 
Devirgiliis C, Zinno P, Perozzi G (2013). Update on antibiotic resistance in food borne Lactobacillus and Lactococcus species. Front. Microbiol. 4:1-13.
 
Cogan MT (1985) The leuconostocs: Milk products. In: S. E. Gilliland (Ed.), Bacterial starter cultures for foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. pp. 25-40.
 
D'Aimmo MR, Modesto M, Biavati B (2007). Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from dairy and pharmaceuticals products. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 115:35-42.
Crossref
 
de Man JC, Rogosa M, Sharpe ME (1960). A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli. J . Appl. Bact. 23:130-135.
Crossref
 
Erdogrul O, Erbilir F (2006). Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei from various foods. Turk. J. Biol. 30:39-44.
 
Facklam RD, Hollis JG, Collins MD (1989). Identification of gram-positive coccal and coccobacillary vancomycin resistant bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:724-730.
Pubmed
 
Gonzalez-Zorn B, Escudero JA (2012). Ecology of antimicrobial resistance: humans, animals, food and environment. Int. Microbiol.15:101-109.
Pubmed
 
Grajek WH, Walkowiak-Tomczak D (1997). Factors Influencing the Denitrification Rate of Red Beet Juice by the Bacteria Paracoccus denitrificans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45:1963-1966.
Crossref
 
Hamilton-Miller JMT, Shah S (1998). Vancomycin susceptibility as an aid to the identification of lactobacilli. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 26:153-154.
Crossref
 
Kerner M, Mayer ME, Rajthen A, Scubert H (1986). Reduction of nitrate contents in vegetable foods using denitrifying microorganisms. In: Zeuthen P, Cheftel JC, Erikson Zeuthen P, Cheftel JC, Eriksson C, Gormley TR, Linko P, Paulus K (1990). Food Biotechnology: Avenues to Healthy and Nutritious Products. Vol 2 Processing and Quality of Foods. Elsevier Applied Science, London.
 
Levy SB (1997). Antibiotic resistance: an ecological imbalance. In: Chadwick DJ and Good J (Eds.), Antibiotic Resistance: Origins, Evolution, Selection and Spread. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. pp. 1-14.
 
Marshall BM, Ochieng DJ, Levy SB (2009). Commensals: under-appreciated reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Microbe. 4:231-238.
 
Nagulapally SR (2007). Antibiotic resistance patterns in municipal wastewater bacteria. M.Sc. Thesis. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.
 
Orberg PK, Sandine WE (1984). Common occurrence of plasmid DNA and vancomycin resistance in Leuconostoc spp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:1129-1133.
Pubmed
 
Prievost H, Cavin JF, Lamoureux M, Divies C (1995). Plasmid and chromosome Characterisation of Leuconostoc oenos strains. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 46:43-48.
 
Rodriguez-Alonso P, Fernandez-Otero C, Centeno JA, Garabal JI (2009). Antibiotic Resistance in Lactic Acid Bacteria and Micrococcaceae/Staphylococcaceae Isolates from Artisanal Raw Milk Cheeses, and Potential Implications on Cheese Making. J. Food Sci. 74:M284-M293.
Crossref
 
Simpson WJ, Hammond JRM, Miller RB (1988). Avoparcin and vancomycin—Useful antibiotics for the isolation of brewery lactic acid bacteria. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 64:299-309.
Crossref
 
Svara F, Rankin DJ (2011). The evolution of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance. BMC Evol. Biol. 11:130. (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/130).
Crossref
 
Tannock GW, Fuller R, Pedersen K (1990) Lactobacillus succession in the piglet digestive tract demonstrated by plasmid profiling. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:1310-1316.
Pubmed
 
Teuber M, Geis A (1981). The family Streptococcaceae (nonmedical aspects). In: Starr MP (Ed.), The prokaryotes, Springer-Verlag, New York. 2:1614-1630.
 
Teuber M, Meile L, Schwarz F (1999). Acquired antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria from food. Antonie Leeuwenhoek. 76:115-137.
Crossref
 
van Reenen CA, Dicks LM (2011). Horizontal gene transfer amongst probiotic lactic acid bacteria and other intestinal microbiota: what are the possibilities. A review. Arch. Microbiol.193:157-168. doi:10.1007/s00203-010-0668-3.
Crossref
 
Vaughan EE, de Vries MC, Zoetendal EG, Ben-Amor K, Akkermans ADL, de Vos WM (2002). The intestinal LABs, J. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 82:341-352.
Crossref
 
Vidal CA, Thompson DC (1987). Resistance and sensitivity of meat lactic acid bacteria to antibiotics. J. Food Prot. 50:737-740.

 


APA Agarwal, M., Garg, F. C., & Negi, Y. K. (2014). Antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile of Leuconostoc spp. isolated from carrot. African Journal of Bacteriology Research, 6(1), 7-12.
Chicago Mohit Agarwal, F. C. Garg and Y. K. Negi,. "Antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile of Leuconostoc spp. isolated from carrot." African Journal of Bacteriology Research 6, no. 1 (2014): 7-12.
MLA Mohit Agarwal, et al. "Antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile of Leuconostoc spp. isolated from carrot." African Journal of Bacteriology Research 6.1 (2014): 7-12.
   
DOI 10.5897/JBR2013.0124
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/3737B8643264

Subscription Form