African Journal of Bacteriology Research
Subscribe to JBR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 84EE56961085


Vol.8(3), pp. 14-21 , October 2016
DOI: 10.5897/JBR2016.0204
ISSN: 2006-9871



Full Length Research Paper

Isolation and characterization of feather degrading bacteria from poultry waste



Manirujjaman M.
  • Manirujjaman M.
  • Department of Biochemistry, Gonoshasthaya Samaj Vittik Medical College and Hospital, Gono University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Google Scholar
Amin R.
  • Amin R.
  • Mushroom Development Institute, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Google Scholar
Nahid A. A.
  • Nahid A. A.
  • Department of Physiology, Gonoshasthaya Samaj Vittik Medical College and Hospital, Gono University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Google Scholar
Alam M. S.
  • Alam M. S.
  • Department of Microbiology, Gono University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 03 May 2016  Accepted: 25 August 2016  Published: 31 October 2016

Copyright © 2016 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


This study was conducted to isolate, partially purify and characterize keratinolytic microbes and their enzymes for commercial exploitation. A feather degrading bacterial strain was isolated from soil where poultry feathers were dumped by the poultry farms as a waste product. The isolated bacteria grew well at 37°C and the pH of 7.5. This isolate showed maximum feather degrading activity at 37°C. The enzyme activity could be detected in the temperature range of 30 to 37°C. Keratinolytic activity was detected during growth of microbes and complete degradation of keratin was achieved. The proteolytic character of crude enzymes was assessed using azo-casein as substrate. Crude keratinase was extracted and purified by salt precipitation and dialysis. The organism was pigment producing, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive and Gram negative bacteria. Fermentation of sugars, SIM test, indole production test, citrate test, nitrate reduction test, MR test, VP test, starch and gelatin hydrolysis test were also done. The isolated bacteria produced green pigment during its growth and the media turned greenish. Phenotypic characterization carried out in laboratory showed that this Gram negative bacterium might belonged to Bacillus or Alteromonas genus. The cell free supernatant had feather hydrolyzing activity. Therefore, it can be said that it was an extracellular protease, that is, keratinase enzyme. This keratinolytic isolate could be a potential candidate for degradation and utilization of feathers. It might also be an efficient method for the production of microbial enzymes and metabolites.

Key words: Alteromonas, Bacillus, Keratin, poultry waste, feather.

Azeredo L, Lima M, Coelho R, Freire D (2006). Thermophilic protease production by Streptomyces sp. 594 in submerged and solid‐state fermentations using feather meal. J. Appl. Microbiol. 100:641-647.
Crossref

 

Bockle B, Muller R (1997). Reduction of Disulfide Bonds by Streptomyces pactum during Growth on Chicken Feathers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:790-792.

 
 

Bressollier P, Letourneau F, Urdaci M, Verneuil B (1999). Purification and characterization of a keratinolytic serine proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:2570-2576.

 
 

Cheng SW, Hu HM, Shen SW, Takagi H, Asano M, Tsai YC (1995). Production and characterization of keratinase of a feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 59:2239-2243.
Crossref

 
 

De Toni C, Richter M, Chagas J, Henriques JA, Termignoni C (2002). Purification and characterization of an alkaline serine endopeptidase from a feather-degrading Xanthomonas maltophilia strain. Can. J. Microbiol. 48:342-348.
Crossref

 
 

Friedrich AB, Antranikian G (1996). Keratin Degradation by Fervidobacterium pennavorans, a Novel Thermophilic Anaerobic Species of the Order Thermotogales. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:2875-2882.

 
 

Ghasemi Y, Shahbazi M, Amini SR, Kargar M, Safari A, Kazemi A, Najafabady NM (2012). Identification and characterization of feather-degrading bacteria from keratin-rich wastes. Ann. Microbiol. 62:737-744
Crossref

 
 

Ghosh A, Chakrabarti K, Chattopadhyay D (2008). Degradation of raw feather by a novel high molecular weight extracellular protease from newly isolated Bacillus cereus DCUW. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 35:825-834.
Crossref

 
 

Govinden G, Puchooa D (2012). Isolation and characterization of feather degrading bacteria from Mauritian soil. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11:13591-13600.
Crossref

 
 

Gradisar H, Kern S, Friedrich J (2000). Keratinase of Doratomyces microsporus. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 53:196-200.
Crossref

 
 

Kaul S, Sumbali G (1997). Keratinolysis by poultry farm soil fungi. Mycopathologia 139:137-140.
Crossref

 
 

Korkmaz H, Hür H, Dinçer S (2004). Characterization of alkaline keratinase of Bacillus licheniformis strain HK-1 from poultry waste. Ann. Microbiol. 54:201-211.

 
 

Kreger A, Lockwood D (1981). Detection of extracellular toxin(s) produced by Vibrio vulnifcus. Infect. Immun. 33:583-590.

 
 

Lin X, Lee CG, Casale ES, Shih JC (1992). Purification and characterization of a keratinase from a feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis strain. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:3271-3275.

 
 

Manczinger L, Rozs M, Vágvölgyi C, Kevei F (2003). Isolation and characterization of a new keratinolytic Bacillus licheniformis strain. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 19:35-39.
Crossref

 
 

Matsumoto T (1996). Fungal diseases in dermatology. Principle and Practice of Clinical Mycology, pp. 103-129.

 
 

Montero-Barrientos M, Rivas R, Velázquez E, Monte E, Roig MG (2005). Terrabacter terrae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Spain. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:2491-2495.
Crossref

 
 

Noval JJ, Nickerson WJ (1959). Decomposition of native keratin by Streptomyces fradiae. J. Bacteriol. 77(3):251-263.

 
 

Odetallah N, Wang J, Garlich J, Shih J (2003). Keratinase in starter diets improves growth of broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 82:664-670.
Crossref

 
 

Peek K, Daniel RM, Monk C, Parker L, Coolbear T (1992). Purification and characterization of a thermostable proteinase isolated from Thermus sp. strain Rt41A. Eur. J. Biochem. 207(3):1035-1044.
Crossref

 
 

Ramnani P, Singh R, Gupta R (2005). Keratinolytic potential of Bacillus licheniformis RG1: structural and biochemical mechanism of feather degradation. Can. J. Microbiol. 51:191-196.
Crossref

 
 

Riffel A, Brandelli A (2006). Keratinolytic bacteria isolated from feather waste. Braz. J. Microbiol. 37:395-399.
Crossref

 
 

Riffel A, Lucas F, Heeb P, Brandelli A (2003). Characterization of a new keratinolytic bacterium that completely degrades native feather keratin. Arch. Microbiol. 179:258-265.

 
 

Sangali S, Brandelli A (2000). Feather keratin hydrolysis by a Vibrio sp. strain kr2. J. Appl. Microbiol. 89:735-743.
Crossref

 
 

Shih JC (1993). Recent development in poultry waste dizgestion and feather utilization-a review. Poult. Sci. 72:1617-1620.
Crossref

 
 

Suzuki Y, Tsujimoto Y, Matsui H, Watanabe K (2006). Decomposition of extremely hard-to-degrade animal proteins by thermophilic bacteria. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 102:73-81.
Crossref

 

 


APA Manirujjaman, M., Amin, R., Nahid, A. A., & Alam, M. S. (2016). Isolation and characterization of feather degrading bacteria from poultry waste. African Journal of Bacteriology Research, 8(3), 14-21.
Chicago Manirujjaman M., Amin R., Nahid A. A. and Alam M. S.. "Isolation and characterization of feather degrading bacteria from poultry waste." African Journal of Bacteriology Research 8, no. 3 (2016): 14-21.
MLA Manirujjaman M., et al. "Isolation and characterization of feather degrading bacteria from poultry waste." African Journal of Bacteriology Research 8.3 (2016): 14-21.
   
DOI 10.5897/JBR2016.0204
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/84EE56961085

Subscription Form