African Journal of Bacteriology Research
Subscribe to JBR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - BB2E6FF64182


Vol.9(3), pp. 15-20 , April 2017
DOI: 10.5897/JBR2015.0188
ISSN: 2006-9871



Full Length Research Paper

Evaluating the antimicrobial potency of crude extracts of Psidium guajava bark, leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya and whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri against specific pathogenic bacteria



Adetunde, L. A.
  • Adetunde, L. A.
  • Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University for Development Studies-Tamale, Ghana
  • Google Scholar
Ninkuu, V.
  • Ninkuu, V.
  • Department of Biotechnology, University for Development Studie, Tamale, Ghana
  • Google Scholar
Sacky, I.
  • Sacky, I.
  • Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University for Development Studies-Tamale, Ghana
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 30 September 2015  Accepted: 22 February 2016  Published: 30 April 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The potency of hot water, cool water and ethanoilc extracts of bark and leaves of Psidium guajava, leaves of Vernonia amydalina, Carica papaya and whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri were assessed against isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans obtained from the Mampong Research Institute of Herbal medicine in the Eastern region of Ghana. Antibacterial tests were carried out using the agar wells diffusion method. The susceptibility test results showed that extracts of P. niruri are very effective on all gram negative bacteria and extracts of Psidium guajava were effective on both gram negative and positive bacteria. Although V. amygdalina extracts showed inhibition to some bacteria in both hot water and ethanolic extract, hot water extract of C. papaya showed inhibition to S. aureus and S. typhi but room water extracts of both V. amygdalina and C. papaya showed quite a good results. Hence the potency of these plants base on their inhibition zones can be effectively used on some infectious disease caused by the test bacteria. 

 

Key words: Antimicrobial, Crude extracts, Psidium guajava, Phyllanthus niruri, Vernonia amydalina, Carica papaya, bacteria.

Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A (2002). Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7):713-715.
Crossref

 

Abosi AO, Raseroka BH (2003). In vivo antimalarial activity of Vernonia amygdalina. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 60(2):89-91.
Crossref

 
 

Akah PA, Okafor CI (1992). Hypoglycemic effect of Vernonia amygdalina (Del) in experimental rabbits. Plant Med. Res. 1:6-10.

 
 

Akinpelu DA Onakoya TM (2006). Antimicrobial avtivities of medicinal plants used in folklore remedies in south-western Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5(11):1078-1081.

 
 

Alabi OA, Haruna MT, Anokwuru CP, Jegede T, Abia H, Okegbe VU, Esan BE (2012). Comparative studies on antimicrobial properties of extracts of fresh and dried leaves of carica papaya (L) on clinical bacterial and fiungal isolates. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 3(5):3107-3114.

 
 

Aruljothi S, Uma C, Sivagurunathan P and Bhuvaneswari M. (2014).Investigation on Antibacterial Activity of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts against Wound Infection-Causing Bacteria. Int. J. Res. Stud. Biosci. 2(11):8-12.

 
 

Atta, K. Bonsu (1999). "The Power of Garlic".Cardiovascular disease prevention Association, Buea, Cameroon. P 72.

 
 

Bala SA (2006). Psidium guajava. In, some ethnomedicinal plants of the savannah regions of west Africa: Description and phytochemicals. Triumph publishing company limited, Kano, Nigeria.Bala SA (ed). Vol. II. pp. 21-56.

 
 

Bhasha S, Kondeti R. S, Sahukari R, Venkata S. Korivi and Kesireddy S. R. (2014). Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Phyllanthus niruri in Ethanolic, Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts.Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res: 27(2):85-89.

 
 

Bhumyamalaki, (1983). Phyllanthus Niruri and jaundice in children. J. Natl. Integr. Med. Assoc. 1983; 25(8):269-72.

 
 

Blumenthal M (1999). Harvard study estimates consumers spend $5.1 billion on herbal products. Herbal Gram. 45:68.

 
 

Bonsi MLK, Osuji PO, Tuah AK, Umunna MN (1995). Vernonia amygdalina as a supplement of teff straw (Eragrostis tef) fed to Ethiopian Menz. Sheep. Agroforestry syst. 31(3): 229-244.
Crossref

 
 

Burkil HM (1994): The useful plants of west Tropical Africa. R.Bot. Gard. Kew pp. 21-150.

 
 

Coates A, Hue Y, Bax R, Page C. (2002). The future challenges facing the development of new antimicrobial drugs. Nat. Rev. Drug. Discov. 1:895-910.
Crossref

 
 

De Smet PA (1997): The role of plant-derived drugs and herbal medicines in healthcare. Drugs 54:801-840.
Crossref

 
 

Diallo D, Paulsen BS, Hveem B (1996). Production of Traditional Medicine: Preparations Accepted as Medicine in Mali. In: Properties of African Medicinal Plants (Hostettmann K, Chinyanganya F, Millard M and Wolfender J-L, eds.). University of Zimbabwe Publications, Harare. pp. 235-241.

 
 

Duke JA (1984b). Borderline herbs.CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.pp. 401-436

 
 

Ejoh RA, Nkonga DV, Inocent G, Moses MC (2007). Nutritional components of some non conventional leafy vegetables consumed in Cameroon. Pak. J. Nutr. 6: 712-717.
Crossref

 
 

Eleyinmi AF, Sporns P, Bressler DC (2008). Nutritional composition of Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina. Nutr. Food Sci. 38:99-109.
Crossref

 
 

Elizabeth Kafaru, (1994). Immense help from nature,s workshop. 1st Ed. Elikaf Health Services Ltd. Ikeja, Lagos. pp. 207-209.

 
 

Emeruwa AC(1982). Anti bacterial substance from Carica papaya fruit extract. J. Nat. Prod. 45:123-127.
Crossref

 
 

Evans W.C (2002). Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. Elsevier, India. 15th ed. pp. 137-393.

 
 

Gill L S. (1992). Carica papaya L. In: Ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Nigeria. Benin City: UNIBEN Press. pp. 57-58.

 
 

Hamowia AM, Saffaf AM (1994). Pharmacological studies on Vernonia amygdalina(Del) and Tithonia diversifolia (Gray). Vet. Med. Giza 2:91-97.

 
 

Heinrich M (1998): Plants as antidiarrhoeals in medicine and diet. Proceeding from a Joint Meeting of the Society for Economic Botany and the International Society London (JMSEBISL'98), R. Bot. Gard. Kew, UK. pp. 17-30.

 
 

Huffman MA (2003) Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: Exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 62(2):371-81.
Crossref

 
 

Idu M, Timothy O, Omogbai EKI, Amaechina F (2008). Hypotensive effects and acute toxicity property of methanol extract of Baissea axillaries Hau. J. Biol. Sci. 8: 675-678.
Crossref

 
 

Igile GO, Oleszek W, Jurzysta M, Burda S, Fanfunso M, Fasanmade AA (1994): Flavonoids from Vernonia amygdalina and their antioxidant activities. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2445-2448.
Crossref

 
 

Igile GO, Oleszyek W, Burda S, Jurzysta N (1995). Nutritional assessment of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in growing mice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:2126-2166.
Crossref

 
 

Ijeh II, Nwugo VO, Obidoa O (1996). Comparative studies on the nutritive, phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of two varieties of Vernonia amygdalina. Plant Prod. Res. Comm. 1:71-75.

 
 

Kamath JU, Rahul N, Ashok Kumar CK, Lakshm SM (2008). Psidium guajava. In a review. Int.Green Pharm. pp. 29-12.

 
 

Kupcham SM (1971). Drugs from Natural products. Plant source in drugs discovery, science and development. Am. Chem. Soc. 6:311- 318.

 
 

Leonti M, Vibrans H, Stiche O, Heinrich M (2001). Ethnopharmacology of the Popoluca, Mexico: An Evaluation. J. Pharmacol. 53:1653-1669.
Crossref

 
 

Lozoya X, Reyes-Morales H, Chavez-Soto MA, Martinez-Garcia MC, Soto-Gonzalez Y, Doubova SV (2002). Intestinal antispasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal diseases. J. Ethnopharmacol. 83(12):19-24.
Crossref

 
 

Lutete T, Kambu K, Ntondele D, Cimanga K, Luki N (1994). Antimicrobial activity of tannins. Fitoterapia 65(3):276-278.

 
 

Mantok C (2005). Multiple Usage of Green Papaya in Healing at Tao Garden. Tao Garden Health spa & Resort.Thailand. Available at: www.tao-garden.com.

 
 

Mbuh FA, Asika U, Doughari J H. (2008). Studies on antibacterial activities of leaf extract of psidium guajava. Best J. 5(1):44-47.

 
 

Morton JF (1987). Fruits of Warm Climates. Creative Resouces Inc., Winterville, N.C.

 
 

Nirosha N, Mangalanayaki R. (2013). Antibacterial Activity of Leaves and Stem Extract of Carica papaya L. Int. J. Adv.Pharm. Biol. Chem. 2(3):473-476

 
 

Nwanjo HU (2005). Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on the plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status of diabetic rat models. Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 20:39-42.

 
 

Nwinyi OC, Chinedu NS, Ajani OO (2008). Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava and Gongronema Latifolium. J. Med. Plants Res. 2(8):189-192

 
 

Nyika A (2007). Ethical and regulatory issues surrounding African traditional medicine in the context of HIV/AIDS. Dev. World Bioeth. 7:25-34.
Crossref

 
 

Okechukwu E C, Amaechi A A, Mundi K S, Ibekwe NN, Chah K F, (2012). Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava Linn, stem extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11(89):15556-15559.
Crossref

 
 

Peter RN (1991). Pawpaw (Asimina). In: J.N. Moore and J. R. Ballington (eds). Genetic resources of temperate fruit and nut trees. Acta Hort. 290:567-600.Phyllanthus niruri on Paracetamol- induced liver cell damage in albino mice. J. Exp. Med. 12 (14): 211- 213.

 
 

Rosina K, Barrira I, Mohd, Shazi S, Anis A, Manazir SA, Mashiatullah S. Asad UK (2009). Antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts against muti-drug reserve (MDR) strains of Bacteria and Fungi of clinical origin. Molecule 14:586-597.
Crossref

 
 

Sofowora A (2008). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Limited Ibadan, Nigeria. 3rd edn, pp. 199-204.

 
 

Syamasundar KV, Singh B, Thakur RS, Husain A, Kiso Y, Hikino H (1985): Antihepatotoxic principles of Phyllanthus niruri herb. J. Ethnopharmacol. 14:41-44.
Crossref

 
 

Thabrew M R (1996). Phytogenic agents in the therapy of liver disease." Phytother. Res. 10(6):461-67.
Crossref

 
 

Thomas, K.D., Ajani, B. et al., (1987): Antisickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw fruit. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 81:510-511.
Crossref

 
 

Tona LK, Ngimbi N, Cimanga K, Vlitink AJ (1998): Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese Medicinal Plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 61(1):57-65.
Crossref

 
 

Udensi EA, Ijeh II, Ogbonna U (2002): Effect of traditional processing on the phytochemical and nutrient composition of some local Nigerian leafy vegetables. J. Sci. Technol. 8:37-40.

 
 

Uma DS Beena L. (2014).Antibacterial Activity of Phyllanthus niruri growing near mobile towers.Biosci. Discov. 5(2):221-226.

 
 

Umarani D (1985). Ethanol induced metabolic alterations and the effect of Phyllanthus niruri in their reversal. Anc. Sci. Life 4(3):174-80.

 

 


APA Adetunde, L. A., Ninkuu, V., & Sacky, I. (2017). Evaluating the antimicrobial potency of crude extracts of Psidium guajava bark, leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya and whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri against specific pathogenic bacteria. African Journal of Bacteriology Research, 9(3), 15-20.
Chicago Adetunde, L. A., Ninkuu, V. and Sacky, I.. "Evaluating the antimicrobial potency of crude extracts of Psidium guajava bark, leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya and whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri against specific pathogenic bacteria." African Journal of Bacteriology Research 9, no. 3 (2017): 15-20.
MLA Adetunde, et al. "Evaluating the antimicrobial potency of crude extracts of Psidium guajava bark, leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya and whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri against specific pathogenic bacteria." African Journal of Bacteriology Research 9.3 (2017): 15-20.
   
DOI 10.5897/JBR2015.0188
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/BB2E6FF64182

Subscription Form