Journal of Cell and Animal Biology
Subscribe to JCAB
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 44DD79755284

Vol.9(4), pp. 31-37 , September 2015
DOI: 10.5897/JCAB2015.0439
ISSN: 1996-0867

Full Length Research Paper

Postnatal development of the vagina in West African dwarf goat (Capra hircus)

Clifford Nwabugwu ABIAEZUTE
  • Clifford Nwabugwu ABIAEZUTE
  • Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Innocent Chima NWAOGU
  • Innocent Chima NWAOGU
  • Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

 Received: 16 June 2015  Accepted: 10 August 2015  Published: 30 September 2015

Copyright © 2015 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

The postnatal developmental pattern of the vagina of WAD goat from birth to week 28 was investigated by gross and light microscopy. Forty five (45) female WAD goat kids were used in this study and were divided into nine groups of five goat kids per group. Each goat was euthanized, the vagina dissected out and studied, the length and weight measured. Data obtained were analysed by analysis of variance and Duncanʼs new multiple range test with values of p< 0.05 considered significant. The tissues were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and routinely processed for histology. At birth, the length and weight of the vagina of the female WAD goat were 1.85 ± 0.10 cm and 0.10 ± 0.01 g, respectively. These increased significantly (p< 0.05) to 5.07 ± 0.39 cm and 4.04 ± 0.33 g at 28 weeks of age, respectively. The longitudinal folds and hymen were ill defined at birth but became increasingly prominent as the goats aged with the longitudinal folds extending into the vulva.  Histologically, the epithelium in all age group was a stratified squamous type. At birth, the lamina priopria-submucosa formed the cores of the longitudinal folds composed of loose connective tissue with numerous blood vessels. The tunica muscularis was ill defined. The tunica serosa/adventitia was a loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. The vagina showed increased development of its tissues with age. The histology of the vaginal tissues at week 16 was similar to older WAD goat. In all age groups, isolated lymphoid nodules were observed in the lamina priopria-submucosa. The result suggests that the WAD goat probably attained puberty earlier than previously reported.
Key words: West Africa dwarf goat, vagina, Longitudinal folds, puberty, tunica muscularis.

Adigwe PI, Fayemi O (2005). A Biometric study of the reproductive tract of the Red Sokoto (Maradi) goats of Nigeria. Pak. Vet. J. 25(3):149-150.
Akusu MO, Osuagwuh AIA, Akpokodje JU, Egbunike GN (1986). Ovarian Activities of the West African Dwarf Goat (Capra hircus) during oestrus. J. Reprod. Fertil. 78:459-462.
Aughey E, Frye LF (2001). Comparative Veterinary Histology. Manson Publishing, London. pp. 183-214.
Bacha Jr JW, Bacha ML(2012). Colour Atlas of Veterinary Histology, 3rd ed. Wiley - Blackwell. United Kingdom. pp. 243-265.
Banks WJ (1993). Applied Veterinary Histology, 3rd ed. Mosby Incorporated, Missouri. pp. 446-468.
Brooks AN, McNeilly AS, Thomas GB (1995). Role of GnRh in the ontogeny and regulation of the feto-hypothalamo-pituitary axis in sheep. J. Reprod. Fertil. 49:163-175
Budras K, Habel RE (2003). Female genital organ in: Bovine Anatomy, an illustrated text. SchluterscheGmBH& Co. KG. Hannover, Germany. pp. 86-88.
Chibuzo AG (2006). Ruminant Dissection Guide: A regional approach in goat. 2nd ed. Beth-Bekka Academic Publishers, Maiduguri, Nigeria. pp. 59-60.
Constantinescu GM, Constantinescu IA (2010). Functional anatomy of the goat, in: Solaiman GS. (Ed) Goat Science and Production. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa. pp. 89-137.
Dyce KM, Sack WO, Wensing CJG. (2002). Veterinary Anatomy, 3rd ed. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp. 637-639.
Frandson RD, Wilke WL, Fails AD (2009). Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System in: Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals. 7th edition. pp. 421-427.
Goncagul G, Seyrek IK, Kumru IH, Seyrek ID (2012). Prevalence and accompanying signs of pneumovagina and urovigina in dairy cows in Southern Marmara region. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 40(6):359-366.
Hafez B, HafezESE.(2000). Anatomy of female reproduction, in: Hafez ESE, Hafez B (Eds). Reproduction in farm animals.7th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. pp. 13-29.
Hyttel P, Sinowatz F, Vejlsted M (2010). Development of the urogenital system in: Essentials of Domestic Animal Embryology. Saunders Elsevier. Sydney. pp. 252-284.
Jainudeen MR, Wahid H, Hafez ESE (2000). Sheep and Goats in: Hafez ESE, Hafez B. (Eds), Reproduction in Farm Animals. 7th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. pp. 170-181.
Jannini EA, d'Amati G, Lenzi A (2005). Histology and immunohistochemical studies of female genital tissues in: Goldstein I, Meston CM, Davis S, Traish A. (Eds) Womenʼs sexual function and dysfunction: study, diagnosis and treatment. CRC Press ebook. pp. 125-133.
Kumar P (2009). Applied Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics. International Book Distribution Co. India. pp. 3-20.
Leigh OO, Raheem AK, Oluwadamilare OJA (2010). Improving the reproductive efficiency of the goat: Vaginal cytology and vulvar biometry as predictors of synchronized estrus/breeding time in west african dwarf goat. Int. J. Morphol. 28(3): 923-928.
McGeady TA, Quinn PJ, FitzPatrick ES, Ryan MT, Cahalan S. (2006). Male and Female Reproductive Systems in: Veterinary Embryology. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 244 -267.
Mellin TN, Erb W, Estergreen VLJ (1966). Urinary excretion of oestrogen by the bovine before and after parturition. J. Anim. Sci. 25:955-957.
Menzies PI (2010). Control of important causes of infectious abortion in sheep and goats. Vet. Clin. Food Anim. 27:81-93.
Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ, England GCW (2001). Arthur's Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics.8th ed. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia. pp. 3-51.
Ola SI, Sanni WA, Egbunike GN.(2006). Exfoliative vaginalcytology during the oestrus cycle of West African dwarf goats. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 46:87-95.
Oni OO (2002). Breeds and Genetic Improvement of Small Ruminants (Sheep and Goats), in: Lakpini C.A.M., Adamu A.M., Ehoche, O.W. and Gefu J.O. (Eds.) Manual for small ruminant production in Nigeria.
Papka ER, Williams JS (1998). Vagina, in: Ernest K, Jimmy DN. (Eds). Encyclopedia of Reproduction. Academic Press, San Diego California. Vol. 4. pp.961-968.
Samuelson AD (2007). Textbook of Veterinary Histology. Saunders, Missouri. pp. 443-486.
Smith MC (1986). Caprine Reproduction, in: Marrow DA. (Ed).Current Therapy in Theriogenology. W. B. Saunders. Philadelphia, USA. pp. 577-579.
Wang J, Duan E, Huang Q, Hao Z, Wu H (1991).Reproductive Performance of the Saanen goat in china. Proceedings of the final co-ordination meeting, Perth, Australia, 20–24 February 1989 on improving sheep and goat productivity with the aid of nuclear techniques, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
Yotov S, Atanasov A, Antonov A, Karadaev M (2013). Post-oestral vaginal prolapsed in a non-pregnant heifer (a case report). Trakia J. Sci.1: 95-101.


APA ABIAEZUTE, C. N., & NWAOGU, I. C. (2015). Postnatal development of the vagina in West African dwarf goat (Capra hircus). Journal of Cell and Animal Biology, 9(4), 31-37.
Chicago Clifford Nwabugwu ABIAEZUTE and Innocent Chima NWAOGU. "Postnatal development of the vagina in West African dwarf goat (Capra hircus)." Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 9, no. 4 (2015): 31-37.
MLA Clifford Nwabugwu ABIAEZUTE and Innocent Chima NWAOGU. "Postnatal development of the vagina in West African dwarf goat (Capra hircus)." Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 9.4 (2015): 31-37.
DOI 10.5897/JCAB2015.0439

Subscription Form