Journal of Cell and Animal Biology
Subscribe to JCAB
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - EDEF4E556950


Vol.10(1), pp. 1-8 , January 2016
DOI: 10.5897/JCAB2015.0440
ISSN: 1996-0867



Full Length Research Paper

Effect of different levels of Satureja hortensis essential oil on performance, carcass characteristics, acidity and intestinal microflora population in broilers



Mohammad Yeganeparast
  • Mohammad Yeganeparast
  • Qom Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Qom, Iran.
  • Google Scholar
Mohsen Khalili
  • Mohsen Khalili
  • Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
  • Google Scholar
Jalal Salari
  • Jalal Salari
  • Department of Animal Science, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 19 June 2015  Accepted: 28 August 2015  Published: 31 January 2016

Copyright © 2016 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


This experiment was carried out to study the effects of dietary supplementation of Satureja hortensis essential oil on growth, carcass parts, pH and luminal microbe in broiler chicken. A total of 400 one week old ROS 308 male chicks were used in a completely randomize design model with 5 treatments and 4 replicates, each composing of 20 chicks. Duration of experiment was 35 days until the age of 42 days. Treatments were a basal diet supplemented with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of S. hortensis essential oil with a negative (no supplementation) and a positive control (containing 300 g/1000 kg) of Orego-Stim (a commercial compound). Feed intake and body weight gain were measured weekly and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. Chicks were reared on litter and were fed ad libitum with antibiotic and coccidiostat free diet. At 35th day, litter samples was collected and sent to laboratory for determining its moisture and bacterial total count. At the 42nd day, two chicks per cage were slaughtered for determining carcass parts ratio, ileum digesta pH and bacterial count by dilution method. Results showed that S. hortensis essential oil and Orego-Stim compound had no effects on broiler growth. Liver relative weight increased by 50 and 150 ppm S. hortensis essential oil as compared to the control group. No change of pH was observed due to treatments. Chicks that received 150 ppm S. hortensis essential oil showed higher litter bacterial count as compared to the control and other treatments.

 

Key words: Broiler chicken, Satureja hortensis essential oil, growth performance, bacterial count.

Acamovic T, Brooker JD (2005). Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolites and their effects in animals. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 64:403-412.
Crossref

 

Ahmed A, Mangaiyarkarasi RN, Shahid Umar Shahina Rahmanullah S, Zahra Y (2013). Effect of black tea extract (polyphenols) on performance of broilers. Int. J. Adv. Res. 1(7):563-566.

 
 

Al-Kassie GAM (2009). Influence of two plant extracts derived from thyme and cinnamon on broiler performance. Pak. Vet. J. 29:69-173.

 
 

Al-Kassie GAM (2010).The effect of thyme and cinnamon on the microbial balance in gastro intestinal tract on broiler chicks. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 9:495-498.
Crossref

 
 

Amad AA, Wendler KR, Zentek J (2013). Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance, selected blood criteria and jejunal morphology in broiler chickens. Emir. J. Food Agric. 25(7):549-554.
Crossref

 
 

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (2007). Moisture relationships of plant-based agricultural products.In: ASABE Standards. 54th ed. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. pp. 596-612.

 
 

Barker KJ, Coufal CD, Purswell Jl, Davis JD, Parker HM, Kidd MT, McDaniel CD, Kiess AS (2011). In-house windrowing of a commercial broiler farm during the summer months and its effect on litter composition. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 20:168-180.
Crossref

 
 

Botsoglou NA, Florou-Paneri PE, Christaki Fletouris DJ, Spais AB (2002). Effect of dietary oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and on iron-induced lipid oxidation of breast, thigh and abdominal fat tissues. Br. Poult. Sci. 43(2):223-230.
Crossref

 
 

Bunyapraphatsara N (2007). Utilization of medicinal plants in animal production. 11th International Congress, Leiden, The Netherlands, Phytopharmcology. Chickens. Ann. Anim. Sci. 10:157-165.

 
 

Burt S (2004). Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in food- A review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 94(3):223-253.
Crossref

 
 

Cao PH, Li FD, Li YF, Ru YJ, Peron A, Schulze H, Bento H (2010). Effect of essential oils and feed enzymes on performance and nutrient utilization in broilers fed a corn/soy-based diet. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 9(8):749-755.
Crossref

 
 

Ciftci M, Guler T, Dalkıkıc B, Ertas ON (2005). The effects of anise oil (Pimpinella anisum L.) on broiler performance. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 11:851-855.

 
 

Corduk M, Ceylan N, Dede N, Tel OY (2008). Effects of novel feed additives on performance, carcass traits and E. coli, aerobic bacteria and yeast counts in broilers. Arch. Geflügelk. 72(2):61-67.

 
 

Cross DE, Mcdevitt RM, Hillman K, Acamovic T (2007). The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age. Br. Poult. Sci. 48:496-506.
Crossref

 
 

Erdogan ZS, Erdogan S, Aslantas O, Elik SC (2010). Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotics and phytobiotics on performance, caecal coliform population and some oxidant/antioxidant parameters of broilers. J. Anim. Phys. Anim. Nutr. 94:40-48.
Crossref

 
 

Ertas ON, Guler T, Ciftci M, Dalkilic B, Simsek UG (2005). The effect of an essential oil mix derived from oregano, clove and anise on broiler performance. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 4:879-884.
Crossref

 
 

Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Scheffer JJC (2008). Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants. Flavour Fragr. J. 23:213-226.
Crossref

 
 

Fritz Z, Schleicher A, Kinal S (1993). Effect of substituting milfoil, St. Johnswort and lovage for antibiotics on chicken performance and meat quality. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2:189-195.

 
 

Ghalamkari G, Toghyani M, Tavalaeian E, Landy N, Ghalamkari Z, Radnezhad H (2011). Efficiency of different levels of Satureja hortensis L. (Savory) in comparison with an antibiotic growth promoter on performance, carcass traits, immune responses and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10(61):13318-13323.

 
 

Ghannadi A (2002). Composition of the essential oil of Satureja hortensis L. seeds from Iran. J. Essen. Oil Res. 14:35-36.
Crossref

 
 

Giannenas I, Florou-Paneri P, Papazahariadou M, Christaki E, Botsoglou NA, Spais AB (2003). Effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on performance of broilers after experimental infection with Eimeria tenella. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 57:99-106.
Crossref

 
 

Giannenas I, Florou-Paneri P, Papazahariadou M, Christaki E, Botsoglou NA, Spais AB (2004). Effect of diet suplementation with ground oregano on performance of broiler chickens challenged with Emeria tenella. Arch. Geflugelkd. 68:247-252.

 
 

Hashemi SR, Davoodi H (2012). Herbal plants as new immuno-stimulator in poultry industry: A Review. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 7:105-116.
Crossref

 
 

Hashemi SR, Zulkifli I, Hair-Bejo M, Karami M, Soleimani AF (2009a). The effects of Euphorbia hirta and acidifier supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant activity in broiler chickens. Proceedings of the 21st Veterinary Association Malaysia (VAM) Congress, August 7-9, 2009, Port Dickson, Malaysia, pp. 215-217.

 
 

Hashemi SR, Zulkifli I, Zunita Z, Hair-Bejo M, Lohetal TC (2009b). Effects of dietary supplementation with Euphorbia hirta and acidifier on performance and Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Proceedings of the 30th Malaysia Society of Animal Production Annual Conference, June 2-5, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, pp. 69-70.

 
 

Hernandez F, Madrid J, Garcia V, Orengo J, Megıas MD (2004). Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poult. Sci. 83(2):169-174.
Crossref

 
 

Hosseini MH (2011). Performance, carcass quality, blood parameters and immune system of broilers fed diets supplemented with Oregano oil (Origanum sp.). Ann. Biol. Res. 2(6):652-656.

 
 

Jafari B, Rezaie A, Ebadi A, Ghiamirad M, Ahmadizadeh C (2011). Evaluation of medicinal plant oil (Teucrium polium) in diets of broilers. J. Appl. Biol. Sci. 1(12):583-586.

 
 

Jamroz D, Orda I, Kamel C, Wiliczkiewicz A, Wertelecki T, Skorupinska I (2003). The influence of phytogenic extracts on performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, and gut microbial status in broiler chickens. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 12:583-596.

 
 

Jamroz D, Williczkiewicz A, Wertelecki T, Orda J, Skorupinska J (2005). Use of active substances of plant origin in chicken diets based on maize and locally grown cereals. Br. Poult. Sci. 46(4):485-493.
Crossref

 
 

Jang IS, Ko YH, Kang SY, Lee CY (2007). Effect of a commercial essential oil on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal microflora population in broiler chicks. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 134:304-315.
Crossref

 
 

Jia-Chi H, Steiner T, Aufy A, Tu-fa L (2012). Effects of supplemental essential oil in growth performance, lipid metabolites and immunity, intestinal characteristics, microbiota and carcass traits in broilers. Livest. Sci. 144(3):253-262.
Crossref

 
 

Khaligh F, Sadeghi G, Karimi A, Vaziry A (2011). Evaluation of different medicinal plants blends in diets for broiler chickens. J. Med. Plants Res. 5:1971-1977.

 
 

Khan SH (2014). The use of green tea (Camellia sinensis) as a phytogenic substance in poultry diets. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 81(1):1-8.
Crossref

 
 

Khodaei AS (2011a). Influence of two herbal extracts on performance, carcass quality and blood parameters in broiler chicken. Ann. Biol. Res. 2(5):584-588.

 
 

Khodaei AS (2011b). Effect of herbal oil on performance, carcass quality, blood parameters and immune system in female broiler chicken. Ann. Biol. Res. 2(5):589-592.

 
 

Kirkpinar F, Unlu HB, Ozdemir G (2011). Effects of Oregano and Garlic essential oils on performance, carcass, organ and blood characteristics and intestinal microflora of broilers. Livest. Sci. 137:219-225.
Crossref

 
 

Lavina S, Dumitrescu G, Drinceanu D, Stef D (2009). The effect of medicinal plants and plant extracted oils on broiler duodenum morphology and immunological profile of broiler. Rom. Biotechnol. Lett. 9:1906-1914.

 
 

Lee K, Everts W, Beyen AC (2003). Dietary carvacrol lowers body gain but improves feed conversion in female broiler chickens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 12:394-399.
Crossref

 
 

Lee KW, Everts H, Kappert HJ, Beynen AC (2004a). Growth performance of broiler chickens fed a carboxymethyl cellulose containing diet with supplemental carvacrol and/or cinnamaldehyde. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3:619-622.
Crossref

 
 

Lee KW, Everts H, Kappert HJ, van der Kuilen J, Lemmens AG, Frehner M, Beynen AC (2004c). Growth performance, intestinal viscosity, fat digestibility and plasma cholesterol in broiler chickens fed a rye-containing diet without or with essential oil components. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3:613-618.
Crossref

 
 

Lee KW, Everts H, Kappert HJ, Wouterse H, Frehner M, Beynen AC (2004b). Cinnamaldehyde, but notthymol, counteracts the carboxymethyl cellulose-induced growth depression in female broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3:608-612.
Crossref

 
 

Lopez-Bote CJ (2004). Bioflavonoid effects reach beyond productivity. Feed Mix 12:12-15.

 
 

Narimani-Rad M, Nobakht A, Shahryar HA, Lotfi AR (2011). Influence of dietary supplementation of medicinal plants mixtures Ziziphora, Mentha pulagum and Peppermint) on some serum biochemical and immunological measures of broiler chickens. Middle East. J. Sci. Res. 8:457-459.

 
 

Nobakht A, Norany J, Safamehr AR (2011). The effects of different amounts of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) on performance, carcass traits, hematological and blood biochemical parameters of broilers. J. Med. Plant. Res. 5:3763-3768.

 
 

Ocak N, Erener G, Burakak F, Sungu M, Altop A, Ozmen A (2008). Performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with dry peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) or thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves as growth promoter source. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 53:169-175.

 
 

Peric L, Milosevic N, Zikic D, Bjedov S, Cvetkovic D, Markov S, Mohnl M, Steiner T (2010). Effects of probiotic and phytogenic products on performance, gut morphology and cecal microflora of broiler chickens. Archiv Tierzucht 53(3):350-359.

 
 

Pish Jang J (2011). Comparison of effect of Cuminum cyminum and probiotic on performance and serum composition of broiler chickens. Ann. Biol. Res. 2(6):630-634.

 
 

Pooryousef MM, Hosseini MN (2011). Echinacea purpura and Carumcopticum extract improve performance, carcass quality but not effect on blood parameters and immune system in broiler chicken. Ann. Biol. Res. 2(5):610-614.

 
 

Roofchaee A, Irani M, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Akbari MR (2011). Effect of dietary Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on growth performance, cecal microflora and serum antioxidant activity of broiler chickens. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10(32):6177-6183.

 
 

Samadian F, Zeinoaldini S, Towhidi A, Karimi Torshizi MA, Ansari Pirasaraei Z, Gholamzadeh P (2013). A. Evaluation of some phytogenic feed additives in growing chicks diet.‏ Int. J. Agric. 3(1):35-43.

 
 

Scheuermann GN, Junior AC, Cypriano L, Gabbi AM (2009). Phytogenic additive as an alternative to growth promoters in broiler chickens. Cienc. Rural 39(2):522-527.
Crossref

 
 

Sefidkon F, Sadighzadeh L, Taymori M (2006). The study of antimicrobial effects of essential oils of Satureia hortensis. J. Med. Plants 23:174-182.

 
 

SPSS (2007). Statistical package for social science 16.0 Brief Guide: SPSS Inc. 233 South Wacker Drive, 11th Floor Chicago, IL 60606-6412 16. 2007.

 
 

Tekeli A, Celik L, Kutlu HR, Gorgulu M (2006). Effect of dietary supplemental plant extracts on performance, carcass characteristics, digestive system development, intestinal microflora and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. XII, EPC, 10-14 September, Verona, Italy.

 
 

Tiihonen K, Kettunen H, Bento MH, Saarinen M, Lahtinen S, Ouwehand AC, Schulze H, Rautonen N (2010). The effect of feeding essential oils on broiler performance and gut microbiota. Br. Poult. Sci. 51(3):381-392.
Crossref

 
 

Vukic-Vranjes M, Tolimir N, Vukmirovic D, Colovic R, Stanacev V, Ikonic P, Pavkov S (2013). Effect of phytogenic additives on performance, morphology and caecal microflora of broiler chickens. Biotechnol. Anim. Husb. 29(2):311-319.
Crossref

 
 

Zamanimoghaddam AK, Ghannadi AR, Gafarian A, Shojadoost B (2007). The effect of Satureja hortensis on performance of broiler chickens and NDHI titers. Proceedings of the 16th Eur. Symp. Poult. Nutr., France, 26-30 August 2007, pp. 87-89.

 
 

 


APA Yeganeparast, M., Khalili, M., & Salari, J. (2016). Effect of different levels of Satureja hortensis essential oil on performance, carcass characteristics, acidity and intestinal microflora population in broilers. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology, 10(1), 1-8.
Chicago Mohammad Yeganeparast, Mohsen Khaliliand Jalal Salari. "Effect of different levels of Satureja hortensis essential oil on performance, carcass characteristics, acidity and intestinal microflora population in broilers." Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 10, no. 1 (2016): 1-8.
MLA Mohammad Yeganeparast, Mohsen Khaliliand Jalal Salari. "Effect of different levels of Satureja hortensis essential oil on performance, carcass characteristics, acidity and intestinal microflora population in broilers." Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 10.1 (2016): 1-8.
   
DOI 10.5897/JCAB2015.0440
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JCAB/article-abstract/EDEF4E556950

Subscription Form