Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
Subscribe to JCEMS
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 9D293F560977


Vol.7(3), pp. 28-35 , September 2016
DOI: 10.5897/JCEMS2016.0237
ISSN: 2141-6605



Full Length Research Paper

A constitutive model on flow stress prediction from the contribution of twin and grain refinement, strain and strain rate during surface mechanical attrition treatment of metals



Wing Yan LEUNG
  • Wing Yan LEUNG
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
  • Google Scholar
San Qiang SHI
  • San Qiang SHI
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
  • Google Scholar
Jian LU
  • Jian LU
  • Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, China.
  • Google Scholar
Hai Hui RUAN
  • Hai Hui RUAN
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
  • Google Scholar
Li Min ZHOU
  • Li Min ZHOU
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 20 January 2016  Accepted: 12 July 2016  Published: 30 September 2016

Copyright © 2016 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


A new constitutive equation is developed to model the flow stress on a metal surface undergone high speed impacts that result in strain hardening. The new equation is based on the Johnson-Cook model and has considered the effects of strain, strain rate, grain refinement, twin formation and twin spacing. Two mechanisms for the strain hardening are proposed: Grain refinement or twin formation, depending on the strain rate. At low strain rate, the Hall-Petch relation is obeyed, while at high strain rate, the flow stress is controlled by the formation of deformation twins. The theoretical estimation of flow stress agrees well with experimental data for stainless steel 304. According to the new model, the flow stress can be as high as 1.46 GPa at a strain rate of 105 /s.

 

Keywords: SMAT, flow stress, grain refinement, twin spacing, metal plasticity.

Chan H, Ruan H, Chen A, Lu J (2010). Optimatization of the strain rate to achieve exceptional mechanical properties of 304 stainless steel using high speed ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment. Acta Mater. 58:5086-5096.
Crossref

 

Chen A, Ruan H, Wang J, Chan H, Wang Q, Li Q, Lu J (2011). The influence of strain rate on the microstructure transition of 304 stainless steel. Acta Mater. 59:3697-3709.
Crossref

 
 

Chen A, Zhang J, Lu J, Lun W, Song H (2007). Necking propagated deformation behavior of layer-structured steel prepared by co-warm rolled surface nanocrystallized 304 stainless steel. Mater. Lett. 61:5191:5193.

 
 

Chen M, Ma E, Hemker K, Sheng H, Wang Y, Cheng X (2003). Deformation twinning in nanocrystalline aluminum. Science, 300, 1275 - 1277.
Crossref

 
 

Farrokh B, Khan SA (2009). Grain size, strain rate, and temperature dependence of flow stress in ultra-fine grained and nanocrystalline Cu and Al: Synthesis, experiment and constitutive modeling. Int. J. Plast. 25:715-732.
Crossref

 
 

Grujicic M, Pandurangan B, Yen C, Cheeseman B (2012). Modifications in the AA5083 Johnson-Cook Material Model for Use in Friction Stir Welding Computational Analyses. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 21:2207-2217.
Crossref

 
 

Hall E (1951). The deformation and ageing of mild steel: III Discussion of Results. Proc. of the Phys. Society B 64(9):747:753.

 
 

He A, Xie G, Zhang H, Wang X (2013). A Comparative Study on Johnson-Cook, Modified Johnson-Cook and Arrhenius-type Constitutive Models to Predict the High Temperature Flow Stress in 20CrMo Alloy Steel. Mater. Design 52:677-685.
Crossref

 
 

Iwahashi Y, Wang J, Horita Z, Nemoto M, Langdon T (1996). Principle of equal-channel angular pressing for the processing of ultra-fine grained materials. Scripta Mater. 35(2):143-146.
Crossref

 
 

Johnson G, Cook W (1983). A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. Proceedings: Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics (pp. 19-21). The Hague, the Netherlands: Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics,

 
 

Johnson G, Cook W (1985). Fracture characteristics of three metals subjected to various strains, strain rates, temperatures and pressures. Eng. Fractures Mech. 21(1):31-48.
Crossref

 
 

Kibey S, Liu J, Johnson D, Sehitoglu H (2007). Predicting twinning stress in fcc metals: Linking twin-energy pathways to twin nucleation. Acta Mater. 55:6843-6851.
Crossref

 
 

Kim D, Kim T (2010). Mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of commercially pure titanium in enhanced multi-pass equal channel angular pressing and cold extrusion. Mater. Design 31:54-60.
Crossref

 
 

Li W, Liu P, Ma F, Rong Y (2009). Microstructural characterization of nanocrystalline nickel produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment. J. Mater. Sci. 44(11):2925-2930.
Crossref

 
 

Li X, Wei Y, Lu L, Lu K, Gao H (2010). Dislocation nucleation governed softening and maximum strength in nano-twinned metals. Nature 464:877-880.
Crossref

 
 

Lu K, Lu J (1999). Surface Nanocrystallization (SNC) of metallic materials-presenation of the concept behind a new approach. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 15(3):193-197.

 
 

Mecking H, Kocks U (1981). Kinetics of flow and strain-hardening. Acta Metallurgica 29:1865-1875.
Crossref

 
 

Michiuchi M, Kokawa H, Wang Z, Sato Y, Sakai K (2006). Twin-induced grain boundary engineering for 316 austenitic stainless steel. Acta Mater. 54:5179-5184.
Crossref

 
 

Neto ED, Peric D, Owen D (2008). Computational Methods for Plasticity Theory and Applications. United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Crossref

 
 

Petch N (1953). The cleavage strength of polycrystals. J. Iron Steel Institute 174:25-28.

 
 

Schino AD, Kenny J (2003a). Grain refinement strengthening of a micro-crystalline high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Mater. Lett. 57:1830-1834.
Crossref

 
 

Schino AD, Kenny J (2003b). Grain size dependence of the fatigue behaviour of a ultrafine-grained AISI 304 stainless steel. Mater. Lett. 57(21):3182-3185.
Crossref

 
 

Taylor G (1934a). The mechanism of plastic deformation of crystals. Part I. theoretical. Proceedings of the Royal Society A 145:363-387.
Crossref

 
 

Taylor G (1934b). The mechanism of plastic deformation of crystals. Part II. comparison with observations. Proceedings of the Royal Society A 145:388-404.
Crossref

 
 

Wang X, Shi J (2013). Validation of Johnson-Cool Plasticity and Damage Model using Impact Experiment. Int. J. Impact Eng. 60:67-75.
Crossref

 
 

Wu X, Ma E (2006). Deformation twinning mechanisms in nanocrystalline Ni. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88:061905.
Crossref

 
 

Xiao G, Tao N, Lu K (2008). Effects of strain, strain rate and temperature on deformation twinning in a Cu-Zn alloy. Scripta Mater. 59:975-978.
Crossref

 
 

Ye X, Tse ZT, Tang G, Li X, Song G (2015). Effect of electropulsing treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-rolled pure titanium strips. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 222:27-32.
Crossref

 
 

Ye X, Tse ZT, Tang G, Song G (2014). Effect of electroplastic rolling on deformability, mechanical property and microstructure evolution of Ti-6Al-4V alloy strip. Mater. Characterization 98:147-161.
Crossref

 
 

Zhang X, Lu J, Shi S (2011). A computational study of plastic deformation in AISI304 induced by surface mechanicam attrition treatment. Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures 18:572 - 577
Crossref

 
 

Zhu L, Ruan H, Li X, Dao M, Gao H, Lu J (2011). Modeling grain size dependent optimal twin spacing for achieving ultimate high strength and related high ductility in nanotwinned metals. Acta Mater. 59:5544-5557.
Crossref

 

 


APA LEUNG, W. Y., SHI, S. Q., LU, J., RUAN, H. H., & ZHOU, L. M. (2016). A constitutive model on flow stress prediction from the contribution of twin and grain refinement, strain and strain rate during surface mechanical attrition treatment of metals. Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, 7(3), 28-35.
Chicago Wing Yan LEUNG, San Qiang SHI, Jian LU, Hai Hui RUAN and Li Min ZHOU. "A constitutive model on flow stress prediction from the contribution of twin and grain refinement, strain and strain rate during surface mechanical attrition treatment of metals." Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science 7, no. 3 (2016): 28-35.
MLA Wing Yan LEUNG, et al. "A constitutive model on flow stress prediction from the contribution of twin and grain refinement, strain and strain rate during surface mechanical attrition treatment of metals." Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science 7.3 (2016): 28-35.
   
DOI 10.5897/JCEMS2016.0237
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JCEMS/article-abstract/9D293F560977

Subscription Form