Journal of
Cancer Research and Experimental Oncology

  • Abbreviation: J. Cancer Res. Exp. Oncol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2243
  • DOI: 10.5897/JCREO
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 52

Review

Immunotherapy against cancer: A comprehensive review

Minda Asfaw Geresu*
  • Minda Asfaw Geresu*
  • School of Agriculture, Animal and Range Sciences Course Team, Madda Walabu University, Bale-Robe, Ethiopia.
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Awel Feku Sultan
  • Awel Feku Sultan
  • Bale Zone Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Office, Bale- Robe, Ethiopia.
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Seifudin Kassim Ahmed
  • Seifudin Kassim Ahmed
  • Goba Woreda Livestock and Fisheries Resource and Development Office, Goba, Ethiopia.
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Gezahegne Mamo Kassa
  • Gezahegne Mamo Kassa
  • College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.
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  •  Received: 19 October 2015
  •  Accepted: 18 May 2016
  •  Published: 31 July 2016

Abstract

The endeavor of this paper was to review cancer immunotherapy which means the modulating and using of the patient’s own immune system to target the cancer cells rather than using an extrinsic means of therapy. The best way to prevent and remove infections is through the natural 'sterilising' action of the immune response that combines elements of both innate and adaptive immunity to ward off foreign pathogens without medical intervention. The use of immunostimulants, non-specific approach, for cancer therapy is one of the earliest approaches in immunotherapy that aims to enhance the activity of the lymphocytes that are already attacking to the tumour cells but are insufficient to produce a full-powered immune response. In this review, radioimmunotherapy (coupling a radioactive atom to a monoclonal antibody (mAb)), immunotoxins (generated by coupling plant-derived or bacterial toxins to mAbs), antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (an antibody is used as a vector to transfer an enzyme) and immunomodulators were among the discussed approaches to use mAbs as an anti-cancer. A new and promising immunotherapy that is especially highly effective against metastatic melanoma, adoptive cell therapy (ACT), and different cancer vaccines were also reviewed in detail.

Key words: Adoptive cell therapy, cancer immunotherapy, cancer vaccines, immunostimulants, monoclonal antibodies.