Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene
Subscribe to JDOH
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - C91C21560564


Vol.8(9), pp. 59-65 , September 2016
DOI: 10.5897/JDOH2015.0176
ISSN: 2141-2472



Full Length Research Paper

Periodontal conditions in orthodontic patients using direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques: A randomized study



Maurício Matté Zanini
  • Maurício Matté Zanini
  • Area of Dental Materials, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil.
  • Google Scholar
Carlos Augusto Nassar
  • Carlos Augusto Nassar
  • Stricto Sensu Post-graduation Dental Program, State University of West Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil.
  • Google Scholar
Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar
  • Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar
  • Stricto Sensu Post-graduation Dental Program, State University of West Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil.
  • Google Scholar
Priscilla do Monte Ribeiro Busato
  • Priscilla do Monte Ribeiro Busato
  • Dentistry, Dental School, State University of West Parana, Cascavel, Parana, Brasil.
  • Google Scholar
Jamille Favarão
  • Jamille Favarão
  • Area of Dental Materials, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil.
  • Google Scholar
Mauro Carlos Agner Busato
  • Mauro Carlos Agner Busato
  • Stricto Sensu Post-graduation Dental Program, State University of West Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 19 August 2015  Accepted: 18 March 2016  Published: 30 September 2016

Copyright © 2016 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The aim of this study was comparing two orthodontic bracket bonding techniques (direct and indirect), with regard to the following variables: plaque index; gingival index, evaluation of gingival crevicular fluid, and white spots on tooth enamel. Seventeen patients were randomly selected (10 men and 7 women) with a mean age of 15.8 years, and these were subjected to comprehensive orthodontic treatment (braces), totaling a sample size of 260 teeth examined. The experimental model used was the split-mouth technique, in each patient, the maxillary brackets in one hemi-arch were bonded by the direct, and in the other by the indirect technique, the same occurring in the mandibular arch. Assessments were performed in the following time intervals: pre-bonding, one, three and six months after initial placement of the brackets. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallys test (Dunn's post-test) to assess the intra-group evolution of the variables. The Wilcoxon test was used for comparison between groups. The brackets bonded to teeth by the direct technique showed a higher number of surfaces with the presence of bacterial plaque and bleeding, when compared with the indirect technique, in time intervals of 3 and 6 months. For measurement of fluid, direct bonding showed increased index in 3-month evaluation. The occurrence of white spots showed no statistical difference between groups. As conclusion, indirect technique shows less oral health impairment with a lower incidence of plaque accumulation, bleeding and fluid.

Key words: Orthodontics, indirect bonding, periodontics, gingivitis, dental caries.

Al-Anezi AS, Harradine NW (2012). Quantifying plaque during orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthod. 82(4):748-753.
Crossref

 

Bozelli JV, Bigliazzi R, Barbosa HA, Ortolani CL, Bertoz FA, Faltin Junior K (2013). Comparative study on direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques regarding time length and bracket detachment. Dental Press J. Orthod. 18(6):51-57.
Crossref

 
 

Castilla AE, Crowe JJ, Moses JR, Wang M, Ferracane JL, Covell DA (2014). Measurement and comparison of bracket transfer accuracy of five indirect bonding techniques. Angle Orthod. 84(4):607-614.
Crossref

 
 

Ciuffolo F, Tenisci N, Pollutri L (2012). Modified bonding technique for a standardized and effective indirect bonding procedure. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 141(4):504-509.
Crossref

 
 

Dalesandri D, Dalesandri M, Bonetti S, Visconti L, Paganelli C (2012). Effectiveness of na indirect bonding technique in reducing plaque accumulation around braces. Angle Orthod. 82(2):313-318.
Crossref

 
 

Deahl ST, Salome N, Hatch JP, Rugh JD (2007). Practice-based comparison of direct and indirect bonding. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 132(6):738-742.
Crossref

 
 

Gange P (2000). More on indirect bonding. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 117(1):18A.
Crossref

 
 

Gayake PV, Chitko SS, Sutrave N, Gaikwad PM (2013). The direct way of indirect bonding--the combined effect. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 24(3):15-17.

 
 

Hinrichs JE, Bandt CL, Smith JÁ, Golub LM (1984). A comparison of 3 systems for quantifying gingival crevicular fluid with respect to linearity and the effects of qualitative differences in fluids. J. Clin. Periodontol. 11(10):652-661.
Crossref

 
 

Hodge TM, Dhopatkar AA, Rock WP, Spary DJ (2004). A randomized clinical trial comparing the accuracy of direct versus indirect bracket placement. J. Orthod. 31(2):132-137.
Crossref

 
 

Jordan C, LeBlanc DJ (2002). Influences of orthodontic appliances on oral populations of mutans streptococci. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 17(2):65-71.
Crossref

 
 

Kanashiro LK, Robles-Ruíz JJ, Ciamponi AL, Medeiros IS, Dominguez GC, de Fantini SM (2014). Effect of adhesion boosters on indirect bracket bonding. Angle Orthod. 84(1):171-176.
Crossref

 
 

Klöehn JS, Pfeifer JS (1974). The effect of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium. Angle Orthod. 44:127-134.

 
 

Koo BC, Chung CH, Vanarsdall RL (1999). Comparison of the accuracy of bracket placement between direct and indirect bonding techniques. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 116(3):346-351.
Crossref

 
 

Loe H, Silness J (1963). Periodontal disease in pregnancy - Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol. Scand. 21:533-551.
Crossref

 
 

Miles P (2010). Indirect bonding--do custom bases need a plastic conditioner? A randomised clinical trial. Aust. Orthod. J. 26(2):109-112.

 
 

Mizrahi E (1982). Enamel demineralization following orthodontic treatment. Am. J. Orthod. 82:62-67.
Crossref

 
 

Mohode R (2012). Minimizing adhesive flash during indirect bonding of a lingual retainer. J. Clin. Orthod. 46(4):233-234.

 
 

Nassar PO, Bombardelli CG, Walker CS, Neves KV, Tonet K, Nishi RN, Bombonatti R, Nassar CA (2013). Periodontal evaluation of different toothbrushing techniques in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental Press J. Orthod. 18(1):76-80.
Crossref

 
 

Nichols DA, Gardner G, Carballeyra AD (2013). Reproducibility of bracket positioning in the indirect bonding technique. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 144(5):770-776.
Crossref

 
 

O'Reilly MT, De Jesús Vi-as J, Hatch JP (2013). Effectiveness of a sealant compared with no sealant in preventing enamel demineralization in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances: a prospective clinical trial. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 143(6):837-844.
Crossref

 
 

Silness J, Loe H (1964). Periodontal disease in pregnancy - Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condtion. Acta Odontol. Scand. 22:121-135.
Crossref

 
 

Silverman E, Cohen M, Gianelly AA, Dietz VS (1972). A universal direct bonding system for both metal and plastic brackets. Am. J. Orthod. 62(3):236-244.
Crossref

 
 

Srivastava K, Tikku T, Khanna R, Sachan K (2013). Risk factors and management of white spot lesions in orthodontics. J. Orthod. Sci. 2(2):43-49.
Crossref

 
 

Steinberg D, Eyal S (2004). Initial biofilm formation of Streptococcus sobrinus on various orthodontics appliances. J. Oral Rehabil 31(11):1041-1045.
Crossref

 
 

Tufekci E, Dixon JS, Gunsolley JC, Lindauer SJ (2011). Prevalence of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Angle Orthod. 81(2):206-210.
Crossref

 
 

Tufekci E, Pennella DR, Mitchell JC, Best AM, Lindauer SJ (2014). Efficacy of a fluoride-releasing orthodontic primer in reducing demineralization around brackets: an in-vivo study. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 146(2):207-214.
Crossref

 
 

Zachrisson S, Zachrisson BU (1972). Gingival condition associated with orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthod. 42:26-34.
Crossref

 

 


APA Zanini, M. M., Nassar, C. A., Nassar, P. O., Busato, P. M. R., Favarão, J., & Busato, M. C. A. (2016). Periodontal conditions in orthodontic patients using direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques: A randomized study. Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene , 8(9), 59-65.
Chicago Maur&icio Matt&e Zanini, Carlos Augusto Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar, Priscilla do Monte Ribeiro Busato, Jamille Favarão and Mauro Carlos Agner Busato. "Periodontal conditions in orthodontic patients using direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques: A randomized study." Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene 8, no. 9 (2016): 59-65.
MLA Mauriacute;cio Matteacute; Zanini, et al. "Periodontal conditions in orthodontic patients using direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques: A randomized study." Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene 8.9 (2016): 59-65.
   
DOI 10.5897/JDOH2015.0176
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JDOH/article-abstract/C91C21560564

Subscription Form