Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology
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Article Number - D44277B59394


Vol.8(7), pp. 58-68 , July 2016
DOI: 10.5897/JECE2016.0374
ISSN: 2141-226X



Full Length Research Paper

Heavy metals and metalloid accumulation in livers and kidneys of wild rats around gold-mining communities in Tarkwa, Ghana



Nesta Bortey-Sam
  • Nesta Bortey-Sam
  • Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Japan.
  • Google Scholar
Shouta M. M. Nakayama
  • Shouta M. M. Nakayama
  • Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Japan.
  • Google Scholar
Yoshinori Ikenaka
  • Yoshinori Ikenaka
  • Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Japan.
  • Google Scholar
Osei Akoto
  • Osei Akoto
  • Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Elvis Baidoo
  • Elvis Baidoo
  • Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Hazuki Mizukawa
  • Hazuki Mizukawa
  • Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Japan.
  • Google Scholar
Mayumi Ishizuka*
  • Mayumi Ishizuka*
  • Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Japan.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 25 February 2016  Accepted: 27 May 2016  Published: 31 July 2016

Copyright © 2016 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Previous studies revealed high levels of metals in soils, drinking water, foodstuffs and food animals in several communities in Tarkwa, Ghana. Therefore wild rats were trapped from 16 communities in Tarkwa to estimate the environmental pollution state of metals; determine differences in sex in metal accumulation; and assess the potential risks involved. Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the livers and kidneys of wild rats; and livers accumulated higher levels of As than kidneys but the reverse was for Cd and Pb. In both organs, As, Cd and Zn levels were higher in female than the male rats. There was a strong positive correlation between body weight and Cd concentrations in livers and kidneys of wild rats which reflects a mechanism of protection against the development of osteopenia, although a biological effect remains a concern. Pb levels in the kidneys could cause intra nuclear inclusion bodies and karyocytomegaly in the proximal tubular cells in 29% of wild rats in Tarkwa and structural and functional kidney damage in 6%. Concentrations of As in kidneys of these wild rats could cause glomerular swelling in 9% of rats. Principal component analysis of the results showed that wild rats in Tarkwa were exposed to heavy metals and a metalloid through borehole drinking water and soils.

Key words: Wild rats, heavy metal, metalloid, liver, kidney, Ghana.

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APA Bortey-Sam, N., Nakayama, S. M. M., Ikenaka, Y., Akoto, O., Baidoo, E., Mizukawa, H., & Ishizuka, M. (2016). Heavy metals and metalloid accumulation in livers and kidneys of wild rats around gold-mining communities in Tarkwa, Ghana. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 8(7), 58-68.
Chicago Nesta Bortey-Sam, Shouta M. M. Nakayama, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Osei Akoto, Elvis Baidoo, Hazuki Mizukawa and Mayumi Ishizuka. "Heavy metals and metalloid accumulation in livers and kidneys of wild rats around gold-mining communities in Tarkwa, Ghana." Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology 8, no. 7 (2016): 58-68.
MLA Nesta Bortey-Sam, et al. "Heavy metals and metalloid accumulation in livers and kidneys of wild rats around gold-mining communities in Tarkwa, Ghana." Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology 8.7 (2016): 58-68.
   
DOI 10.5897/JECE2016.0374
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JECE/article-abstract/D44277B59394

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