Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment
Subscribe to JENE
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 60FACA966093


Vol.9(9), pp. 151-164 , September 2017
DOI: 10.5897/JENE2017.0654
ISSN: 2006-9847



Full Length Research Paper

Assessing and mapping ecosystem services of trees outside forest



Tuemay Tassew
  • Tuemay Tassew
  • Tigray Agricultural Research Institute/Alamata Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box, 56, Alamata, Tigray, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 26 July 2017  Accepted: 14 August 2017  Published: 30 September 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The overall objective of the study was to map trees outside forest (TOF) in croplands, and their contribution to the supply of ecosystem services for local and national beneficiaries using participatory research, Google Earth and ArcMap in Ghana, as the case study area. A satellite image available from Google Earth was used to map croplands, and ArcMap was used to calculate the local and national ecosystem service hot spot areas based on the values assigned to each TOF individuals. The research identified and mapped a total of 786 TOF individuals and 50 TOF species in 147 ha of croplands in the study area. Ficus exasperate, Morinda lucida, Ceiba pentandra, Spathodea campanulata, Mangifera indica, Sterculia tragacantha, Funtumia elastic, Ficus carpensis, Vernonia amygdalina and Trilipisium madagascariense were the top ten most dominant species in terms of species occurrence. Fifteen different local ecosystem services supplied by TOF species, and the hotspot areas were identified and mapped. The total carbon stored by all 786 TOF in 147 ha of the study area was 759 tons of carbon. The most important TOF species and hotspot locations that require special planning, conservation, and management focus were identified and mapped. There was a poor correlation between the importance and location of the key species for local and national beneficiaries which might lead to a conflict of interest and illegal tree felling.

Key words: Trees in croplands, geographic information system (GIS), ecosystem benefits, beneficiaries, tree management.

Bijalwan A, Swamy SL, Sharma CM, Sharma NK, Tiwari AK (2010). Land-use, biomass and carbon estimation in dry tropical forest of Chhattisgarh region in India using satellite remote sensing and GIS. J. For. Res. 21(2):161-170.
Crossref

 

Bonham CD (2013). Measurements for Terrestrial Vegetation (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Crossref

 
 

Boon E, Ahenkan A (2013). Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in Ghana: Case Study of Communities around Sui Forest Reserve. J. Ecosyst. Ecogr. S3:001. doi:10.4172/2157-7625.S3-001
Crossref

 
 

Cornelis Van Kooten G, Eagle AJ, Manley J, Smolak TM (2004). How Costly are Carbon Offsets? A Meta-Analysis of Forest Carbon Sinks. Environ. Sci. Policy 7(4):239-251.
Crossref

 
 

Crossman ND, Bryan BA (2009). Identifying cost-effective hotspots for restoring natural capital and enhancing landscape multifunctionality. Ecol. Econ. 68(3):654-668.
Crossref

 
 

Crossman ND, Burkhard B, Nedkov S, Willemen L, Petz K, Palomo I, Maes J (2013). A blueprint for mapping and modelling ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services (4):4-14.
Crossref

 
 

Daily GC, Polasky S, Goldstein J, Kareiva PM, Mooney HA, Pejchar L, Shallenberger R (2009). Ecosystem services in decision making: time to deliver.

 
 

Dawson IK (2014). Seeing the trees as well as the forest: The importance of managing forest genetic resources. Forest Ecology and Management., pp. 1-8.

 
 

De Foresta (2013). Towards the assessment of trees outside forests. David Taylor, Ed., Rome, Italy.

 
 

Felipe-Lucia MR, Comín FA, Escalera-Reyes J (2015). A framework for the social valuation of ecosystem services. Ambio 44(4):308-18.
Crossref

 
 

Ghana Forestry Commission. (2017). Ghana timber and wood products and applications.

 
 

Giner MSH (2016). Finding Hot Spots Using ArcGIS Online: Minimizing the Subjectivity of Visual Analysis. Washington DC.

 
 

Hapsari A (2010). Assessing and Mapping Ecosystem Services in Offinso. University of Twente Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation (ITC), MSc thesis, Enschede, The Netherlands.

 
 

Henry M, Besnard A, Asante WA, Eshun J, Adu-Bredu S, Valentini R, Saint-Andre L (2010). Wood density, phytomass variations within and among trees, and allometric equations in a tropical rainforest of Africa. For. Ecol. Manag. 260(8):1375-1388.
Crossref

 
 

Hein L, van Koppen K, de Groot RS, van Ierland EC (2006). Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services. In Ecological Economics 57:209-228.
Crossref

 
 

Herrera-Fernández B (2003). Classification and modeling of trees outside forest in central American landscapes by combining remotely sensed data and GIS.

 
 

Locus Map - knowledge base (2016). Locus Map Basics.

View

 
 

Meneguzzo DM, Liknes GC, Nelson MD (2013). Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches. Environ. Monit. Asses. 185(8):6261–6275.
Crossref

 
 

Montagnini F, Nair PKR (2004). Carbon sequestration: An underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems. Agrofor. Syst. 61: 281-295.
Crossref

 
 

Rashid RPS (2012). Assessment of cArbon stocks as an ecosystem service at Rusenski Lom nature park. 

View

 
 

Richards KR, Stokes C (2003). A review of forest carbon sequestration cost studies: A dozen years of research. Climatic Change 63(1):1-48.

 
 

Scharlemann JPW, Kapos V, Campbell A, Lysenko I, Burgess ND, Hansen MC, Miles L (2010). Securing tropical forest carbon: the contribution of protected areas to REDD. Oryx 44(3):352-357.
Crossref

 
 

Schnell S, Kleinn C, Ståhl G (2015a). Monitoring trees outside forests: a review. Environ. Monit. Assess 187(9):600.
Crossref

 
 

Schnell S, Kleinn C, Ståhl G (2015b). Monitoring trees outside forests: a review. Environ. Monit. Assess 187(9):600.
Crossref

 
 

Sinare H, Gordon LJ. (2015). Ecosystem services from woody vegetation on agricultural lands in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 200:186-199.
Crossref

 
 

TEEB (2010). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB.

 
 

Vashum KT, Jayakumar S,T, Vashum K (2012). Methods to Estimate Above-Ground Biomass and Carbon Stock in Natural Forests - A Review. J. Ecosyst. Ecogr. 2(4):1000116.
Crossref

 
 

World Agroforestry Centre (2011). Retrieved January 25, 2017, from 

View

 
 

Zahidi I (2015). Object-based classification of QuickBird image and low point density LIDAR for tropical trees and shrubs mapping. Eur. J. Remote Sens. 48:423.
Crossref

 

 


APA Tassew, T. (2017). Assessing and mapping ecosystem services of trees outside forest. Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment, 9(9), 151-164.
Chicago Tuemay Tassew. "Assessing and mapping ecosystem services of trees outside forest." Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment 9, no. 9 (2017): 151-164.
MLA Tuemay Tassew. "Assessing and mapping ecosystem services of trees outside forest." Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment 9.9 (2017): 151-164.
   
DOI 10.5897/JENE2017.0654
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JENE/article-abstract/60FACA966093

Subscription Form