Journal of General and Molecular Virology
Subscribe to JGMV
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 8C61C9511084


Vol.5(2), pp. 22-27 , August 2013
DOI: 10.5897/JGMV2012.0050
ISSN: 2141-6648



Full Length Research Paper

The potential of house fly, Musca domestica (L.) in the mechanical transmission of influenza A subtype H1N1 virus under laboratory conditions


Nazni W. A.1*, Apandi M. Y.2, Eugene M.1, Azahari A. H.1, Shahar M. K.1, Zainah S.2, Vthylingam I.3 and Lee H. L.1




 

1Medical Entomology Unit, Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

2Virology Unit, Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Email: nazni@imr.gov.my6






 Accepted: 13 August 2013  Published: 31 August 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


 

A study on house flies was carried out to establish whether house flies can transmit the H1N1 virus mechanically due to their abundance, ability to transport pathogens and their behavioral traits of regurgitation and defecation. The objectives of this study were to examine the efficiency of house fly legs in picking up the influenza H1N1 virus particles, persistency of the virus particles on the legs at different time interval, viability of the virus dislodged from the legs and the presence of the virus in vomitus and fecal discharge of the house flies. The findings indicated that the persistency of H1N1 virus on fly legs could be detected up to 24 h in chilled and actively flying flies. Furthermore, the viability of virus was evidenced from immobilized flies exposed for 30 s. However, H1N1 virus was not detected in the vomitus and feces. Further, epidemiological studies are needed before the significance of house flies as transmitter of influenza virus can be determined.

 

 

Key words: H1N1 virus, epidemiological studies, house flies, influenza, transmit

 

Bean WJ, Kawaoka, JM, Wood JE, Pearson RG, Webster (1985). Characterization of virulent and avirulent A/chicken/ Pennsylvania/83 influenza A viruses: potential role of defective interfering RNAs in nature. J. Virol. 54 (1):151-160
PMid:3973976 PMCid:PMC254772
 
Beard CW (1998). Avian influenza. In foreign Animal Diseases, Rich-mond, V.A; United States Animal Health Association. pp. 71-80
 
Emerson PM, Bailey RL, Mahdi OS, Walraven O, Lindsay SW (2000). Transmission ecology of fly Musca sorbens, a punitive vector of trachoma. Transaction of Royal Society Trop. Med. Hyg. 94(1): 28-32
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0035-9203(00)90427-9
 
Forsey T, Drouugar S (2001) Transmission of chlamydia by the housefly. Brit. J. Ophtalmol. 65: 147-150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.65.2.147
 
Globalhealthfacts.org. (2012). Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) cumulative number of confirmed human deaths. as of January 18, 2012, US Global Health www.globalhealthfacts.org/data/topic/map.aspx?ind=33
 
Greenberg B (1973) Flies and Diseases: Volume II; Biology and Disease transmission, Princeton University Press, Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
 
Lamb RA, Krug RM (1996). Orthomyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: BN Fields, DM, Knipe PM, Howley RM, Chanock JL, Melnick TP, Momath, B Roizman (Eds.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed., Lippincott-Ravee, Philadelphia. PA.
 
Lane RP, Crosskey RW (1993). Houseflies, Blowflies and their allies (Calypterate Diptera). In Lane RW and Crosskey RW (eds) Medical insects and arachnids. Champman and Hall, London, pp. 403-428
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1554-4_11
 
Lee MS, Chang PC, Shien JH, Cheng MC, Shieh HK (2001). Identi-fication and subtyping of avian influenza viruses by reverse trans-cription-PCR. J. Virol. Methods 97(1-2):13-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-0934(01)00301-9
 
Lupiani B, Reddy MS (2009). The history of avian influenza. Compara-tive Immunology. Microbiol. Infectious Dis. 32: 311–323
 
Medvecky I, Kovacs L, Kavacs F, Papp L (1988). The role of the house flies Musca domestica in the spread of Aujesky's disease (pseu-dorabies). Med. Vet. Entomol. 2: 81-86
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1988.tb00052.x
 
Milushev I, Greganov G, Shishkov N (1977). The role of the house flies in the epizootiology pseudorabies in birds. Vet. Med. Nausaki 4: 97-100
 
Nazni WA, Luke H, Wan Rozita WN, Abdullah AG, Sa'diyah I, Azahari AH, Zamree I, Tan SB, Lee HL, Sofian MA (2005). Determination of the flight range and dispersal of the housefly Musca domestica (L) using mark release and recapture methods. Trop. Biomed. 22(1): 53-61
PMid:16880754
 
Satoshi O, Scott A, Dee RD, Moon K, Rossow D, Carlos T, Mac DF, Carlos P (2003). Survival of porcine reproductive and respiratory syn-drome virus in the house flies. Canadian J. Vet. Res. 67(3): 198-203
 
Sawabe K, Hoshino K, Sasaki T, Isawa H, Hayash, T, Tsuda Y, Kuruhashi H, Tanabayashi K, Hotta A, Saito T, Yamada A, Kobayashi M (2006). Detection and isolation of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses from blow flies collected in the vicinity of an infected poultry farm in Kyoto, Japan. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75(2): 327-332.
PMid:16896143
 
Sawabe K, Hoshino K, Isawa H, Sasaki T, Kim KS, Hayashi T, Tsuda Y, Kurahashi H, Kobayashi M (2011). Blow flies were one of the pos-sible candidates for transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus during the 2004 outbreaks in Japan. Influenza Res. Treatment, Article ID 652652, p. 8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/652652
PMid:23074659 PMCid:PMC3447300
 
Sievert K, Alvarez R, Cortada R, Valks M (2006). House flies carrying avian influenza virus (AIV). International Pest Control 48 (3): 114–116.
 
Tan SW, Yap KL, Lee HL (1997). Mechanical transport of rotavirus by the legs and wings of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol. 34(5): 527-531
PMid:9379457
 
Thaddeus KG, Ronald K, Robert HG, Michael RC (2001). The role of non biting flies in the epidemiology of human infectious diseases. Microb. infect. 3: 231-235
 
Tyasasmaya T, Wuryastuty H, Wasito R, Sievert K (2012). Experimental evaluation of the house flies (Musca domestica spp.) as a possible vector for avian influenza virus H5N1. In: Current Status of Veterinary Biologicals and Opportunities and Challenges for the Future www.ivvdc2012.org/assets/IVVDC/ivvdc-abstracts.pdf
 
US Department of Agriculture, Animal (USDA), And Plants Health Inspection Services (APHIS), veterinary Vaccines for terrestrial ani-mal. Highly pathogenic avian influenza. US poultry vaccines for ter-restrial animal.(2002). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, a threat to http://www.aphis.usda.gov.oa/pubs/avianflu.html.
 
Wanaratana S, Panyim S, Pakpinyo S (2011). The potential of house flies to act as a vector of avian influenza subtype H5N1 under experi-mental conditions. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 25 (1): 58-63
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2010.00928.x
PMid:21118285
 
World Health Organization (WHO) (2004). Avian influenza fact sheet. http//www.who.int/crs/don/2004-01-15-en/.

 


APA (2013). The potential of house fly, Musca domestica (L.) in the mechanical transmission of influenza A subtype H1N1 virus under laboratory conditions. Journal of General and Molecular Virology, 5(2), 22-27.
Chicago Nazni W. A., Apandi M. Y., Eugene M., Azahari A. H., Shahar M. K., Zainah S., Vthylingam I. and Lee H. L.. "The potential of house fly, Musca domestica (L.) in the mechanical transmission of influenza A subtype H1N1 virus under laboratory conditions." Journal of General and Molecular Virology 5, no. 2 (2013): 22-27.
MLA Nazni W. A., et al. "The potential of house fly, Musca domestica (L.) in the mechanical transmission of influenza A subtype H1N1 virus under laboratory conditions." Journal of General and Molecular Virology 5.2 (2013): 22-27.
   
DOI 10.5897/JGMV2012.0050
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JGMV/article-abstract/8C61C9511084

Subscription Form