Journal of General and Molecular Virology
Subscribe to JGMV
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 92A90B945293


Vol.6(2), pp. 6-18 , June 2014
DOI: 10.5897/JGMV2014.0056
ISSN: 2141-6648



Full Length Research Paper

Phenotypic and molecular screening of cassava (Manihot esculentum Crantz) genotypes for resistance to cassava mosaic disease



P. A. Asare
  • P. A. Asare
  • Department of Crop Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
  • Google Scholar
I. K. A. Galyuon
  • I. K. A. Galyuon
  • Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
  • Google Scholar
E. Asare-Bediako*
  • E. Asare-Bediako*
  • Department of Crop Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
  • Google Scholar
J. K. Sarfo
  • J. K. Sarfo
  • Department of Biochemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
  • Google Scholar
J. P. Tetteh
  • J. P. Tetteh
  • Department of Crop Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 02 January 2014  Accepted: 28 May 2014  Published: 30 June 2014

Copyright © 2014 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by cassava mosaic geminivirus (CMG) is the most-important disease threatening production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Ghana. The disease is best managed through host-plant resistance. The study was conducted to assess resistance of 38 cassava genotypes to CMD, determine the associated resistance gene, and to identify the strains of CMG infecting cassava in Ghana. Both morphological and molecular markers were used to screen 38 cassava accessions against CMG infection. Morphological studies revealed one genotype (Capevars) as highly resistant whilst three others (Adehye, Nkabom and KW085) were tolerant, showing mild symptoms. PCR analyses using strain specific primers, however, detected the virus in all the three tolerant genotypes, but absent in Capevars. However, the dominant CMD resistance gene, CMD2, was detected in both the resistant and the tolerant genotypes. Apart from Capevars, the other 37 cassava genotypes were infected by, at least, one of the four ACMV variants of ACMV1, ACMV2, ACMV-AL and ACMV3. It is, therefore, concluded that field screening for CMD resistance, should integrate phenotypic evaluation and detection of the virus. 

Key words: Cassava, African cassava mosaic virus, simple sequence repeats, resistance.

Abbreviation:

ACMV, African cassava mosaic virus; CMD, cassava mosaic disease; EACMV, East African cassava mosaic virus; EACMV-Ug, East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda variant; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SSR, Simple sequence repeats; CMG, Cassava mosaic geminivirus; WAP, weeks after planting


Abdullahi I, Atiri GI, Dixon AGO, Winter S, Thottapily G (2003). Effects of Cassava Genotype, Climate and the Bemisia tabaci vector population on the development of African Cassava Mosaic Geminvirus (ACMV). Acta Agron. Hung. 51(1):37-46.
Crossref
 
Akano AO, Dixon AGO, Mba C, Barrera E, Fregene M (2002). Genetic mapping of a dominant gene conferring resistance to the cassavamosaic disease (CMD). Theor. Appl. Genet. 105:521-525.
Crossref
 
Akinlosotu TA (1985). Studies on the control of the cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) and green spider mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) in south-western Nigeria. J. Root Crops 9:33-43.
 
Ariyo OA, Dixon AGO, Atiri GI (2005). Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria. J. Econ. Entomol. 98(2):611-617.
Crossref
 
Asamoa GK (1973). Soils of the proposed farm site of the University of Cape Coast. Soil Research Institute (C.S.I.R, Ghana) Technical Report No. 88
 
Bi H, Aileni M, Zhang P (2010). Evaluation of cassava varieties for cassava mosaic disease resistance jointly by agro-inoculation screening and molecular markers. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 4(9):330-338.
 
Boateng PA (2010). Using marker-assisted selection technique as a tool to identify cassava mosaic disease resistant cultivars in first-backcross populations. MSc. Thesis, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
 
Braima J, Yaninek J, Neuenschwander P, Cudjoe A, Modder W, Echendu N, Muaka T (2000). Pest Control in Cassava Farms: IPM Field guide for extension agent. Lagos: Wordsmithes Printers.
 
Clerk GC (1974). Crops and their diseases in Ghana. Tema, Ghana Publishing Corporation.
 
Dellaporta SL, Woods J, Hicks JB (1983). A plant DNA mini-preparation: version II. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 1:19-21.
Crossref
 
Fargette D, Fauquet C, Thouvenel JC (1985). Field studies on the spread of African cassava mosaic. Ann. Appl. Biol. 106:285-294.
Crossref
 
Fargette D, Fauquet C, Thouvenel JC (1988) Yield losses induced by African cassava mosaic virus in relation to the mode and the date of infection. Trop. Pest Manag. 34:89-91.
Crossref
 
Fargette D, Colon LT, Bouveau R, Fauquet C (1996). Components of resistance of cassava to African cassava mosaic virus. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 102:645-654.
Crossref
 
Fauquet C, Fargette D (1990). African Cassava Mosaic Virus: Etiology, Epidemiology, and Control. Laboratoire de Phytovirologie, ORSTOM, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Plant Dis. 74:404-411.
Crossref
 
Fauquet C, Mayo M, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball L eds (2005). Virus Taxonomy VIIIth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. London: Elsevier/Academic.
 
Fauquet C, Stanley J (2003). Geminivirus classification and nomenclature progress and problems. Ann. Appl. Biol. 142:165-189.
Crossref
 
Fondong VN, Pita JS, Rey C, Beachy RN, Fauquet, C. M. (1998). First report of the presence of East African cassava mosaic virus in Cameroon. Plant Dis. 82:1172.
Crossref
 
Fondong VN, Pita JS, Rey MEC, de Kochko A, Beachy R N, Fauquet CM (2000). Evidence of synergism between African cassava mosaic virus and a new double-recombinant geminivirus infecting cassava in Cameroon. J. Gen. Virol. 81:287-97.
Pubmed
 
Fontes EPB, Luckow VA, Hanley-Bowdoin L (1992). A geminivirus replication protein is a sequence specific DNA binding protein. Plant Cell 4:597-608.
Crossref
 
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) (2014). Empowering cassava value chain actors to contribute to increased food security. Rome, Italy: FAO. Retrieved from Food and Agriculture Organisation website:http://www.fao.org/archive/from-the-field/detail/en/c/214024/
 
Food and Agricultural Organisation of United Nations (FAO) (2008). Facts and figures. Rome, Italy http//www.faostat.org.
 
Fregene M, Okogbenin E, Mba C, Angel F, Suarez MC, Guitierez J, Chavarriaga P, Roca W, Bonierbale M, Tohme J (2001). Genome mapping in cassava improvement: Challenges, achievements and opportunities. Euphytica 120:159-165.
Crossref
 
Hahn SK, Terry ER, Leuschner K (1980). Breeding cassava for resistance to cassava mosaic virus disease. Euphytica 29:673-683.
Crossref
 
Hahn SK, John C, Isoba G, Ikoun T (1989). Resistance breeding in root and tuber crops at the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan Nigeria. Crop Prot. 8:147-168.
Crossref
 
Harrison BD, Zhou X, Otim-Nape G W, Liu Y, Robinson DJ (1997). Role of a novel type of double infection in the geminivirus-induced epidemic of severe cassava mosaic in Uganda. Ann. Appl. Biol. 131(3):437-448.
Crossref
 
Hill BG (1968). Occurrence of Bermisia tabaci in the field and its relation to the leaf curl disease of tobacco. South Afr. J. Agric. 11:583-594.
 
Hodgson DJ, Hitchman RB, Vanbergen AJ, Hails RS, Possee RD, Cory JS (2004). Host ecology determines the relative fitness of virus genotypes in mixed-genotype nucleopolyhedrovirus infection. J. Evol. Biol. 17:1018-1025.
Crossref
 
IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture), (1990). Annual Reports, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.
 
Lamptey JNL, Okoli OO, Rossel HW, Frimpong-Manso PP (2000). A method for determining tolerance of cassava genotypes to African cassava mosaic disease in the screenhouse. Ghana J. Agric. Sci. 33:29-32.
 
Lamptey JNL, Okoli OO, Frimpong-Manso PP (1998). Incidence and severity of African cassava mosaic disease (ACMD) and cassava bacterial blight (CBB) on some local and exotic cassava varieties in different ecological zones of Ghana. Ghana J. Agric. Sci. 31 (1):35-43.
 
Leather RJ (1959). Disease of economic plants in Ghana other than cocoa. Ghana Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Division Bulletin No 1.
 
Legg JP, Mallowa S, Sseruwagi P (2003). First report of physical damage to cassava caused by the whitefly, Bermisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Gehiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae). Book of Abstracts. 3rd International Bermisia Workshop. Barcelona 17-20 March, 2003.
 
Legg J, Fauquet C (2004). Cassava mosaic geminiviruses in Africa. Plant Mol. Biol. 56:585-599.
Crossref
 
Leuschner K (1978). Whiteflies: biology and transmission of African cassava mosaic disease. In: T. Brekelbaum, A. Bellotti, T. C. Lozano (Eds), Proceedings of the Cassava Protection Workshop (pp 51-58).Columbia: CIAT.
 
Liu K, Muse SV (2005). PowerMarker: Integrated analysis environment for genetic marker data. Bioinformatics 21(9):2128-2129.
Crossref
 
Lokko Y, Danquah EY, Offei, SK, Dixon AGO, Gedil MA (2005). Molecular markers associated with a new source of resistance to the cassava mosaic disease. Afr. J. Biotech. 4 (9):873-881.
 
Maruthi M N, Seal S, Colvin J, Briddon R W, Bull S E (2004). East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus - a recombinant begomovirus species with a mild phenotype. Archives Virol. 149:2365-2377.
Crossref
 
Matthew AV, Muniyappa,V (1992). Purification and characterization of Indian cassava mosaic virus. Phytopathology 135:99-308
 
Moses E, Asafu-Agyei JN, Adubofour K, Adusei A (2007). Guide to identification and control of cassava diseases. Kumasi, Ghana: CSIR-Crops Research Institute.
 
Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) (2011). Agriculture in Ghana: Factys and Figures. Annual Report. Accra, Ghana: Statistcis, Research and Information Directorate, MoFA.
 
Nei M (1983). Estimation of genetic distances and phylogenetic trees from DNA analysis. Proc. 5th World Cong. Genet Appl. Livestock Prod. 21:405-412.
 
Nicholas RFW (1947). Breeding cassava for virus resistance. East Afr. Agric. J. 15:154-160.
 
Offei SK, Owuna-Kwakye M, Thottappilly G (1999). First Report of East African Cassava Mosaic Begomovirus in Ghana. Plant Dis. 83 (9):877.
Crossref
 
Ogbe FO, Nnodu E C, Odurukwe SO (1996). Control of African cassava mosaic disease incidence and severity. Tropical Sci. 36:174-181.
 
Ogbe FO, Atiri GI, Robinson D, Winter S, Dixon AO, Quin FM, Thottappilly G (1999). First report of East African cassava mosaic begomovirus in Nigeria. Plant Dis. 83:398-402.
Crossref
 
Ogbe FO (2001). Survey of cassava begmoviruses in Nigeria and the response of resistant cassava genotypes to African cassava mosaic begmovirus infection. (PhD thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria).
 
Omongo CA (2003). Cassava whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, behaviour and ecology in relation to the spread of the cassava mosaic pandemic in Uganda. (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Greenwich, UK).
 
Otim. M, Legg J, Kyamanywa S, Polaszek A, Gerling D (2005). Population dynamics of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) parasitoids on cassava mosaic disease-resistant and susceptible varieties. Biocontrol Science and Tech. 16(2):205-214.
Crossref
 
Otim-Nape GW, Shaw MW, Thresh JM (1994). The effects of African cassava mosaic gemini virus on the growth and yield of cassava in Uganda. Trop. Sci. 34:43-54.
 
Payne RW, Murray DA, Harding SA, Baird DB, Soutar DM (2009). Genstat for Windows: Introduction. In: Hemel Hempstead, Hemel Hempstead, UK: VSN International.
 
Perring TM (2001). The Bemisia tabaci species complex. Crop Protect. 20:725-737.
Crossref
 
Read A, Taylor LH (2001). The ecology of genetically diverse infections. Science 292:1099-1102.
Crossref
 
Ribeiro SG, Ambrozevicius LP, Avila AC, Bezerra IC, Calegario RF, Fernandes JJ, Lima MF, de Mello RN, Roche H, Zerbini FM (2003). Distribution and genetic diversity of tomato infecting begomoviruses in Brazil. Archives of Virol. 148:281-295.
Crossref
 
Schurch S, Roy BA (2004). Comparing single- vs. mixed-genotype infections of Mycophaerella graminicola on wheat: effects on pathogen virulence and host tolerance. Evolutionary Ecol. 18:1-14.
Crossref
 
Sneath PHA, Sokal RR (1973). Numerical taxonomy- the principles and practice of numerical classification. San Francisco: Freeman.
 
Sserubombwe WS, Thresh JM, Otim-Nape GW, Osiru DSO (2001). Progress of cassava mosaic virus disease and whitefly vector population in single and mixed stands of four cassava varieties grown under epidemic conditions in Uganda. Ann. Appl. Biol. 135:161-170.
Crossref
 
Terry ER, Hahn SK (1990). The effect of cassava mosaic disease on growth and yield of a local and an improved variety of cassava. Tropical Pest Manag. 26:34-37.
Crossref
 
Tetteh JP, Carson AG, Taah KJ, Addo-Quaye AA, Opoku-Asiama Y, Fiscian P, Buah JN, Asare-Bediako E, Tetteh EO, Okai D, Teiko O (2005). Evaluation report on cassava elite lines proposed for release, presented to National Varietal Release Committee. Department of Crop Science, School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast. p. 16.
 
Thresh JM, Cooter TJ (2005). Strategies for controlling Cassava Mosaic Disease in Africa. Plant Pathol. 54:587-614.
Crossref
 
Thresh JM, Otim-Nape GW, Nichols RFW (1994). Strategies for controlling African cassava mosaic geminivirus. Adv. Dis.Vector. Res. 10:215-236.
 
Thresh JM, Otim-Nape GW, Legg JP, Fargette D (1997). African cassava mosaic virus disease: The magnitude of the problem. Afr. J. Root Tuber Crops 2:13-18.
 
Webster GL (1994) Synopsis of the genera and suprageneric taxa of Euphorbiaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 81:33-144.
Crossref
 
Zhou X, Liu Y, Calvert L, Munoz C, Otim-Nape GW, Robinson DJ, Harrison BD (1997). Evidence that DNA-A of a geminivirus associated with severe cassava mosaic disease in Uganda has arisen by interspecific recombination. J. Gen. Virol. 78 (8):2101-11.
Pubmed
 
Zhou X, Robinson DJ, Harrison BD (1998). Types of variation in DNA A among isolates of East African cassava mosaic virus from Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania. J. Gen. Virol. 79:2835-2840.
Pubmed

 


APA Asare, P. A., Galyuon, I. K. A., Asare-Bediako, E., Sarfo, J. K., & Tetteh, J. P. (2014). Phenotypic and molecular screening of cassava (Manihot esculentum Crantz) genotypes for resistance to cassava mosaic disease. Journal of General and Molecular Virology, 6(2), 6-18.
Chicago P. A. Asare, I. K. A. Galyuon, E. Asare-Bediako, J. K. Sarfo and J. P. Tetteh. "Phenotypic and molecular screening of cassava (Manihot esculentum Crantz) genotypes for resistance to cassava mosaic disease." Journal of General and Molecular Virology 6, no. 2 (2014): 6-18.
MLA P. A. Asare, et al. "Phenotypic and molecular screening of cassava (Manihot esculentum Crantz) genotypes for resistance to cassava mosaic disease." Journal of General and Molecular Virology 6.2 (2014): 6-18.
   
DOI 10.5897/JGMV2014.0056
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JGMV/article-abstract/92A90B945293

Subscription Form