Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology
Subscribe to JPAP
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 47D30A959164


Vol.7(3), pp. 15-22 , May 2016
https://doi.org/10.5897/JPAP2015.0097
ISSN: 2141-260X


 Total Views: 0
 Downloaded: 0

Full Length Research Paper

Preliminary study on the establishment of reference intervals for serum prolactin for women in Zaria, Nigeria



Achie L. N.*
  • Achie L. N.*
  • Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Okorie M.
  • Okorie M.
  • Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Olorunshola K. V.
  • Olorunshola K. V.
  • Department of Human Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Ayegbusi F. O.
  • Ayegbusi F. O.
  • Department of Chemical Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 13 March 2015  Accepted: 30 November 2015  Published: 31 May 2016

Copyright © 2016 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The interpretation of prolactin results is difficult as race related reference intervals are scarce, especially in Nigerian women. Serum prolactin reference intervals were determined from 120 subjects. Subjects were randomly selected from antenatal clinics and general outpatient clinics in one private hospital and three government hospitals in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. They consisted of six groups made up of women that were A-non pregnant, B-first trimester of pregnancy, C-second trimester of pregnancy, D-third trimester of pregnancy, E-labour, and F-puerperium. Their blood samples were collected via venipuncture between 09.00 and 13.00 h after which they were centrifuged and the sera stored at -8°C for further analysis. The samples were analyzed at the Department of Chemical Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika. Serum prolactin was determined with Prolactin quantitative test kits using the principle of solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of prolactin is proportional to the color intensity of the samples as measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450 nm. Informed consent and ethical clearance was obtained before commencement of the study. Results were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and data analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, while post-hoc test was carried out. A level of significance of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant, while the reference range was defined as 95% confidence interval. Serum prolactin results showed a significant increase in pregnant women as compared to the non-pregnant, not lactating subjects (20.24±3.41 ng/ml; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 18.84-21.65 ng/ml). There were also significant trimester related differences in serum prolactin with prolactin levels increasing during the first trimester though not significantly (29.84±5.08 ng/ml). A sharp increase was observed during the second trimester (96.09±18.82 ng/ml; 95% CI: 89.41 to 102.76 ng/ml). There was a further increase at the third trimester (171.11±32.92 ng/ml; 95% CI: 159.03-183.18 ng/ml), a peaking during labour (198.37±15.81 ng/ml; 95% CI: 186.22-210.52 ng/ml) with a significant decline during the first week of the puerperium (197.19±22.11 ng/ml; 95% CI: 183.83-210.55 ng/ml). Apparent changes in serum prolactin levels were similar to that of previous studies; although the ranges for all groups were observed to be narrower as compared to those of other studies.

Key words: Serum prolactin, reference ranges, enzyme immunoassay, Zaria.

Abbassi-Ghanavati M, Greer LG, Cunningham FG (2009). Pregnancy and laboratory studies: a reference table for clinicians. Obstet Gynecol. 114(6):1326-1331.
Crossref

 

Abdullahi H, Tukur J (2013). Sexual stimulants and their effects on women of reproductive age group in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Niger. J. Basic Clin. Sci. 10(1):13-16.
Crossref

 

African Girl-Child Education Initiative (2001). Yearly Technical Report, Abuja Nigeria.

 

Alhaj A (2012). Serum Prolactin Level in Yemeni Females with Breast Cancer Yemeni. J. Med. Sci. 6:1-6.

 

Amballi AA, Dada OA, Adeleye AO, Salu J (2007). Evaluation of the determination of reference ranges for reproductive hormones (prolactin, FSH, LH, and testosterone) using enzyme immuno assay method. Sci. Res. Essay 2(4):135-138.

 

Andersen AN, Tabor A, Hert JB, Schioler V (1981). Abnormal prolactin levels and pituitary-gonadal axis in the puerperium. Obstet. Gynecol. 57(6):725-729.

 

Baron DN, Whicher JT, Lee KE (1989). Reference ranges, normality and abnormal results; Short textbook of Chemical Pathology. 5th edition. 5-8.

 

Batzer FR (1980). Hormonal evaluation of early pregnancy. Fert. Steril. 34(1):1-13.
Crossref

 

Ben-Jonathan N, LaPensee CR, LaPensee EW (2008). What can we learn from rodents about prolactin in humans? Endocr. Rev. 29:1-41.
Crossref

 

Ben-Menachem E (2006). Is prolactin a clinically useful measure of epilepsy? Epilepsy Curr. 6(3):78-79.
Crossref

 

Biswas S, Rodeck CH (1976). Plasma prolactin levels during pregnancy. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 83:683-687.
Crossref

 

Catli G, Abaci A, Altincik A, Demir K, Can S, Buyukgebiz A, Bober E (2012). Hyperprolactinemia in children: clinical features and long term results. J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 25(11-12):1123-1128.
Crossref

 

Conrad KP (2011). Maternal vasodilation in pregnancy: the emerging role of relaxin. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 301(2):R267-R275.
Crossref

 

Cooks HW, Briggs JC (1903). Clinical observations on blood pressure. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rep. 11:451-455.

 

Dada OA, Ladipo OA, Osinusi AO, Osotimein BO, Nduka EV (1981). Circulating blood levels of gonadotropins and prolactin in the normal menstrual cycle. Int. J. Gynae. Obstet. 19:291-294.
Crossref

 

Da Costa R, Szyper-Kravitz M, Szekanecz Z, Csepany T, Danko K, Shapira Y, Zandman-Goddard G, Orbach H, Agmon—Levin N, Shoenfeld Y (2011). Ferritin and prolactin levels in multiple sclerosis. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 13:91-95.

 

Díaz L, Díaz-Mu-oz M, González L, Lira-Albarrán S, Larrea F, Méndez I (2013). Prolactin in the Immune System. In: Nagy GM, Toth BE, editors. E-book- Obstetrics and Gynecology, Prolactin – ISBN 978-953-51-0943-3. Under CC BY 3.0 license. Copyright the Authors.
Crossref

 

Diaz S, Seron-Ferre M, Cardenas H, Schiappacasse V, Brandeis A, Croxatto HB (1989). Circadian variation of basal plasma prolactin, prolactin response to suckling, and length of amenorrhea in nursing women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 68(5):946-955.
Crossref

 

Edwards EM (1958). The Blood pressure in Normal. Br. J. Obst. Gynecol. 65(3):367-370.
Crossref

 

Fang VS, Kim MH (1975). Study on maternal, fetal and amniotic human prolactin at term. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 41:1030-1034.
Crossref

 

Fujimoto VY, Clifton DK, Cohen NL, Soules MR (1990). Variability of serum prolactin and progesterone levels in normal women: the relevance of single hormone measurements in the clinical setting. Obstet. Gynecol. 76(1):71-78.

 

Freeman ME, Kanyicska B, Lerant A, Nagy G (2000). Prolactin: Structure, Function, and Regulation of Secretion. Am. Physiol. Society 20(4):1524-1585.

 

Gaines Das RE, Cotes PM (1979). International Reference Preparation Of Human Prolactin For Immunoassay: Definition Of The International Unit, Report Of A Collaborative Study And Comparison Of Estimates Of Human Prolactin Made In Various Laboratories. J. Endocrinol. 80:157-168.
Crossref

 

Godo G, Koloszar S, Daru J, Falkay G, Sas M (1988). Prolactin release during nursing in early puerperium. Acta. Med. Hung. 45(2):171-177.

 

Iwamoto T, Yanase T, Koh E, Horie H, Baba KNamiki M, Nawamata H (2004). Reference Ranges of Total Serum and Free Testosterone in Japanese Male Adults. Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi 95(6):751-760.
Crossref

 

Jara LJ, Medina G, Saavedra MA, Vera-Lastra O, Navarro C (2011). Prolactin and autoimmunity. Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol. 40(1):50-59.
Crossref

 

Jara LJ, Vera-Lastra O, Miranda JM, Alcala M, Alvarez-Nemegyei J (2001). Prolactin in human systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 10:748-756.
Crossref

 

Jeffcoate SL, Bacon RRA, Beastall GH, Diver MJ, Franks S, Seth J (1986). Assays for Prolactin: Guidelines for the Provision of a Clinical Biochemistry Service. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 6:838-651.
Crossref

 

Katayev A, Balciza C, Seccombe DW (2010). Establishing Reference Intervals for Clinical Laboratory Test Results is there a Better Way? Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 133:180-186.
Crossref

 

Kim C, Golden SH, Mather KJ, Laughlin GA, Kong S, Nan B, Barrett-Connor E, Randolph JF (2012). Racial/Ethnic Difference in Sex Hormone Levels among Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 97(11):4051-4060.
Crossref

 

Korode AGK (2008). Socio-economic Factors and Girl-child's Access to Secondary Education in Borno State. Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis Federal University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.

 

Kristiansson P, Wang JX (2001). Reproductive hormones and blood pressure during pregnancy. Human Reproduction 16(1):13-17.
Crossref

 

Kruger TH, Leeners B, Naegli E, Schmidlin S, Schedlowski M, Hartmann U, Egli M (2009). Prolactin secretory rhythm in women: immediate and long-term alterations after sexual contact. Hum. Reprod. 27(4):1139-1143.
Crossref

 

Manjer J, Johansson R, Berglund G, Janzon L, Kaaks R, Agren A, Lenner P (2003). Postmenopausal breast cancer risk in relation to sex steroid hormones, prolactin and SHBG (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 14:599-607.
Crossref

 

Marano RJ, Ben-Jonathan N (2014). Minireview: Extrapituitary prolactin: an update on the distribution, regulation and functions. Mol. Endocrinol. 28(5):622-633.
Crossref

 

Meraiyebu A, Akintayo CO, Offiah NV (2012). A Study on Prolactin Hormone and Female Infertility in National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria. IOSR J. Dental Med. Sci. (JDMS) 2(2):38-41.
Crossref

 

Nagy E, Berczi I (1989). Pituitary dependence of bone marrow function. Br. J. Haematol. 71:457-462.
Crossref

 

National Population Commission (NPC) (2009). [Nigeria]: Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Abuja, Nigeria: National Population Commission and ICT Macro.

 

Neidhart M, Gray RE, Gay S (1999). Prolactin and prolactin-like polypeptides in rheumatoid arthritis. Biomed. Pharmacother. 53:218-222.
Crossref

 

Okereke E, Aradeon S, Akerele A, Tanko M, Yisa I, Obonyo B (2013). Knowledge of safe motherhood among women in rural communities in northern, Nigeria: implications for maternal mortality reduction. Reprod. Health doi:10.1186/1742-4755-10-57
Crossref

 

Olootu WE, Adeleye AO, Amballi AA, Mosuro AO (2012). Pattern of Reproductive Hormones (Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Estradiol, Progesterone, and Prolactin) Levels in Infertile Women in Sagamu South Western Nigeria. Der Pharm. Lett. 4(2):549-553.

 

Onur E, Ercal T, Karslioglu I (1989). Prolactin and cortisol levels during spontaneous and oxytocin induced labour and the effect of meperidine. Arch. Gynecol. Obst. 244(4):227-232.
Crossref

 

Orbach H, Shoenfeld Y (2007). Hyperprolactinemia and autoimmune diseases. Autoimmun. Rev. 6:537-542.
Crossref

 

Ota E, Haruna M, Suzuki M, Anh DD, Tho LH, Tam NTT, Thiem VD, Anh NTH, Isozaki M, Shibuya K, Ariyoshi K, Murashima S, Moriuchig H, Yanaih H (2011). Maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain and their association with perinatal outcomes in Vietnam Bull. World Health Organ. 89:127-136.
Crossref

 

Pickering TG, Hall JE, Appel LJ, Falkner BE, Graves J, Hill MN, Jones DW, Kurtz T, Sheps SG, Roccella EJ (2005). Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals. Part 1: Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans: A Statement for Professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension 45:142.
Crossref

 

Reuwer AQ, Nowak-Sliwinska P, Mans LA, van der Loos CM, von der Thusen JH, Twickler MT, Spek CA, Gofin V, Griffioen AW, Borensztain KS (2012). Functional consequences of prolactin signaling in endothelial cells: a potential link with angiogenesis in pathophysiology? J. Cell. Mol. Med. 16(9):2038-2048.
Crossref

 

Riordan J (2005). Breastfeeding and human lactation, 3rd edn. Boston and London: Jones and Bartlett pp. 75-77.

 

Rojas VS, Hollmann W, Struder HK (2012). Influences of exercise and training on the circulating concentration of prolactin in humans. J. Neurolendocrinol. 24(3):395-402.
Crossref

 

Sachidhanandam M, Singh SN, Ray US, Salhan AK (2009). Impact of prolonged high altitude exposure on plasma prolactin in men: effect of age and ethnicity. High Altern. Med. Biol. 10(4):343-348.
Crossref

 

Seaborg E (2011). The Hormone Foundation's Patient guide to Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis and Treatment. Endocrine News 36(3):16-21.

 

Speroff L, Fritz MA (2005). Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. 7th edition, Wippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. pp. 580-581.

 

Suitor CW (1997). Maternal Weight Gain: A report of an Expert Work Group. Arlington VA. National Centre for Education in Maternal and Child Health.

 

Tanner MJ, Hadlow NC, Wardrop R (2011). Variation of female prolactin levels with menopausal status and phase of menstrual cycle. Austr. New Zealand J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 51(4):321-324.
Crossref

 

Terra LF, Garay-Malpartida MH, Wailemann RA, Sogayar MC, Labriola L (2011). Recombinant human prolactin promotes human beta cell survival via inhibition of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Diabetologia 54:1388-1397.
Crossref

 

Umar LKK (1996). Education for the Girl-child in Northern Nigeria: A Case for Counseling. Canceller 14(2):77-83.

 

Van Cauter E (1990). Diurnal and ultradian rhythms in human endocrine function: a minireview. Horm Res. 34:45-53.
Crossref

 

Van Cauter E, Spiegel K (1997) Hormones and metabolism during sleep. In: Schwartz W, editor. Sleep Science: Integrating Basic Research and Clinical Practice. Basel: Karger pp. 144-174.
Crossref

 

Vemer HM, Rolland R (1981). The dynamics of prolactin secretion during the puerperium in women. Clin. Endocrinol. 15(2):155-163.
Crossref

 

Voogt JL, Lee Y, Yang S, Arbogast L (2001). Regulation of prolactin secretion during pregnancy and lactation. Prog. Brain Res. 133:173-185.
Crossref

 

Welniak LA, Richards SM, Murphy WJ (2001). Effects of prolactin on hematopoiesis. Lupus 10(10):700-705.
Crossref

 

Walker M (2006). Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the evidence. Boston: Jones and Bartlett. pp. 63-66.

 

Wolf M, Abubakar A, Tsui S, Williamson NE (2008). Child spacing attitudes in northern Nigeria. VI: FHI: Arlington.

 

Zeitlin SI, Raifer J (2014). Hyperprolactinemia and Erectile dysfunction. Rev. Urol. 2(1):39-42.

 


APA Achie, L. N., Okorie, M., Olorunshola, K. V., & Ayegbusi, F. O. (2016). Preliminary study on the establishment of reference intervals for serum prolactin for women in Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology, 7(3), 15-22.
Chicago Achie L. N., Okorie M., Olorunshola K. V. and Ayegbusi F. O.. "Preliminary study on the establishment of reference intervals for serum prolactin for women in Zaria, Nigeria." Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology 7, no. 3 (2016): 15-22.
MLA Achie L. N., et al. "Preliminary study on the establishment of reference intervals for serum prolactin for women in Zaria, Nigeria." Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology 7.3 (2016): 15-22.
   
DOI https://doi.org/10.5897/JPAP2015.0097
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JPAP/article-abstract/47D30A959164

Subscription Form