Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science
Subscribe to JPBCS
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 2E1484056061

Vol.10(3), pp. 58-68 , March 2018
ISSN: 2006-9758

 Total Views: 0
 Downloaded: 0

Full Length Research Paper

Are nonwoven synthetic pollination bags a better choice for sorghum breeding?

R. E. Schaffert
  • R. E. Schaffert
  • Embrapa Maize and Sorghum, Sete Lagoas, Rodovia MG 424 KM 45, CEP:35.702-098, Sete Lagos-MG, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
D. S. Virk
  • D. S. Virk
  • School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales LL57 2UW, UK.
  • Google Scholar
H. Senior
  • H. Senior
  • PBS International, Salter Road, Scarborough, YO11 3UP, UK.
  • Google Scholar

 Received: 04 November 2017  Accepted: 21 December 2017  Published: 31 March 2018

Copyright © 2018 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

This work investigated the effects of seven pollination bag treatments on three varieties of sorghum for: grain loss to birds; total weight of five panicles (g); total grain weight of five panicles (g); average grain weight per panicle (g); germination per cent; and occurrence of grain mold during 2016. Varieties were: 1167048 hybrid (brown seeded); BR007B (red seeded); and P9401 (white seeded). The bag treatments were: 1. No bagging; 2. Kraft paper; 3. Kraft paper + plastic bag screen; 4 Used duraweb® SG1; 5. Used duraweb® SG2; 6. New duraweb® SG1; 7. New duraweld® SG2. High bird pressure resulted in 100% seed loss on uncovered panicles and 75% under Kraft paper pollination bags. Birds preferred white seeded P9401, which led to no seed recovery under Kraft paper bags. There was virtually no bird damage with all other pollination bags. For panicle and grain yields the varieties performed in the order 1167048>BR007B>P9401. Unprotected panicles and paper bag treatments had the lowest yields. Panicles covered with the new synthetic bags exhibited 195 to 652% higher yields compared to Kraft paper bags. Varieties x bag type interactions were not important as they contributed 4 to 6% to the total sum of squares for yield traits. Germination test under normal and stress conditions showed no significant adverse effect of bag treatments on seed health. Reused bags performed as well as new bags for all of these traits. Varieties differed significantly for the occurrence of five grain mold pathogens, with highest occurrence of Alternaria, up to 40%, on 1167048 hybrid. Of the five pathogens, bag types differed significantly for Phoma with the highest occurrence of 9% on re-used duraweb®SG2 bags. Thus bags require disinfecting and cleaning before re-use. It is concluded that nonwoven synthetic bags are a better choice than the Kraft paper pollination bags for increasing the grain yield and virtually eliminating the bird damage in sorghum. 
Key words: Sorghum, nonwoven fabrics, kraft paper, pollination bags, bird control, grain mold.

Adhikari L, Anderson MP, Klatt A, Wu Y (2014). Testing the efficacy of a polyester bagging method for selfing switchgrass. BioEner. Res. 8:380-387.


Bonneau L, Eli D, Vovola P, Virk DS (2017). Comparing pollination bag types for micro-environmental parameters influencing seed production in oil palm. J. Oil Palm Res. 29(2):168-179 .


Chaturvedi M, Yunus D, Datta K (1991). Pollen morphology of Sorghum Moench - Sections Eu-sorghum and Para-sorghum. Grana 33:117-123. ISSN 0017-3133.


Dahlberg J, Berenji J, Sikora V, Latkovic D (2011). Assessing Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm for new traits: food, fuels and unique uses. Maydica 56:85-92.


Gaddameedi A, Kumar AA, Phuke RM, Virk DS, Senior H (2017). Evaluating the efficacy of synthetic fibre pollination control bags in sorghum during the rainy season. Int. J. Plant Breed. Genet. 11:35-54.


Gitz DC, Baker JT, Xin Z, Lascano RJ, Burke JJ, Duke SE (2013). Bird resistant pollination bags for sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance. Am. J. Plant Sci. 4:571-574.


Gitz DC, Baker JT, Xin Z, Burke JJ, Lascano RJ (2015). The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through polyethylene sorghum pollination bags. Am. J. Plant Sci. 6:265-274.


Hayes C, Virk DS (2016). Assessing the relative efficacy of polyester pollination bags and crossing tents, and isolation chambers for seed harvest in Miscanthus crosses. Int. J. Plant Breed. Genet. 10:79-90.


Katie EF, Thorington RW (2006). Squirrels: the animal answer guide. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. P 91.


McGee H (2004). On food and cooking: the science and lore of the kitchen. New York: Scribner. P 714.


Navi SS, Bandyopadhyay R, Reddy RK, Thakur RP, Yang XB (2005) Effects of wetness duration and grain development stages on sorghum grain mold infection. Plant Dis. 89(8):872-878.


Ormerod SJ, Watkinson AR (2000) Editor's introduction: Birds and Agriculture. J. Appl. Ecol. 37:699-705.


PBS International (2016). Why our bags are best for cereals and grasses? sorghum pollination bags.


Schaffert RE, Virk DS, Senior H (2016). Comparing pollination control bag types for sorghum seed harvest. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 8(8):126-137.


Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (2011). Biometry: The Principles and Practices of Statistics in Biological Research. 4th Edn., W.H. Freeman and Co., new York, ISBN-13:978-0-7167-8604-7, P 937.


Thakur RP, Reddy BVS, Indira S, Rao VP, Navi SS, Yang XB, Ramesh S (2006). Sorghum Grain Mold. Information Bulletin No. 72. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Patancheru 502324, Andhra Pradesh, India: 32p. ISBN 92-9066-488-6. Order code IBE 072.


Vogel KP, Sarath G, Mitchel RB (2014). Micro-mesh fabric pollination bags for switchgrass. Crop Sci. 54:1621-1623.



APA Schaffert, R. E., Virk, D. S., & Senior, H. (2018). Are nonwoven synthetic pollination bags a better choice for sorghum breeding?. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science, 10(3), 58-68.
Chicago R. E. Schaffert, D. S. Virk and H. Senior. "Are nonwoven synthetic pollination bags a better choice for sorghum breeding?." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science 10, no. 3 (2018): 58-68.
MLA R. E. Schaffert, D. S. Virk and H. Senior. "Are nonwoven synthetic pollination bags a better choice for sorghum breeding?." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science 10.3 (2018): 58-68.

Subscription Form