Journal of Physical Education and Sport Management
Subscribe to JPESM
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - DD13E3265221

Vol.8(4), pp. 41-49 , July 2017
ISSN: 1996-0794

 Total Views: 0
 Downloaded: 0

Full Length Research Paper

From virtual reality to reality: Examining the relationship between sport video gaming and sport consumption behaviors

Sung, I.L. Hong
  • Sung, I.L. Hong
  • Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.
  • Google Scholar
Marshall Magnusen
  • Marshall Magnusen
  • Baylor University, United States.
  • Google Scholar

 Received: 30 June 2016  Accepted: 28 June 2017  Published: 31 July 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

Insufficient attention has been given to the relationship between sport video games and sport consumer behaviors even though sports and sport video games are popular, multi-billion dollar industries. The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, examine the effects of sport video gamer identification on sport consumption behaviors. Second, investigate the extent which sport fan identification moderates the relationship between identifying as a sport video gamer and sport consumption behaviors. A structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was employed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results indicated that sport video gamer identification had a positive impact on sport consumption behaviors, but sport fan identification did not moderate the relationship between sport video gamer identification and sport consumption behaviors. Though the results were mixed, connecting sport organizations with sport video gamers does appear worthwhile because playing sport video games and identifying as a sport video gamer may lead to sport consumption behaviors.

Key words: Sport video gaming, sport consumption behaviors, sport fan identification.

Badenhausen K (2014). EA Sports' FIFA video game helps fuel interest in the World Cup. Forbes. 



Bentler PM (1990). Comparative fit indices in structural models. Psychol. Bullet.107:238-246.


Bentler PM (2004). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino, CA:Multivariate Software.


Biddiss E, Irwin J (2010). Active video games to promote physical activity in children and youth: A systematic review. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 164:664.672.


Bigné JE, Andreu L, Gnoth J (2005). The theme park experience: An analysis ofpleasure, arousal and satisfaction. Tour. Manage. 26:833-844.


Browne MW, Cudeck R (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociol. Methods Res. 21:230-258.


Cianfrone B, Zhang J, Trailer G, Lutz R (2009). Effectiveness of in-game advertising in sport video games: An experimental inquiry on current gamers. Int. J. Sport Commun. 1:195-218.


Clavio G, Kraft P, Pedersen P (2009). Communicating with consumers through video games: An analysis of brand development within the video gaming segment of the sports industry. Int. J. Sports Market. Sponsorship 10:143-156.


Cunningham GB, Kwon H (2003). The theory of planned behavior and intentions to attend a sport event. Sport Manage. Rev. 6:127-145.


Dubé L, Cervellon MC, Jingyuan H (2003). Should consumer attitudes be reduced to their affective and cognitive bases? Validation of a hierarchical model. Int. J. Res. Market. 20:259-272.


Entertainment Software Association (2015). Essential facts about the computer and video game industry. 


Evans DM, Smith A (2004). The Internet and competitive advantage: A study of Australia's four premier professional sport leagues. Sport Manage. Rev. 14:112-121.


Fink JS, Trail GT, Anderson DF (2002). Environmental factors associated with spectator attendance and sport consumption behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Market. Quart. 11:8-19.


Fisher E (2008). Study: Fantasy players spend big. Sports Business Daily. 



Fisher RJ, Wakefield K (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychol. Market. 15:23-40.


Fornell C, Larcker DF (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. J. Market. Res. 18:382-388.


Funk DC, Alexandris K, McDonald H (2016). Sport consumer behavior: Marketing strategies. NY: Routledge.


Gaudiosi J (2013). Madden: The $4 billion video game franchise. CNN Money. 



Hair JF, Anderson RE, Tatham RL, Black WC (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Hogg MA, Terry DJ (2001). Social identity processes in organizational context. Philadelphia, PA.: Psychology Press.


Hoyle RH (1995). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications.London: Sage.


Hu L, Bentler PM (1999). Cutoff criteria in fix indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct. Equ. Modeling. 6:1-55.


Hur Y, Ko YJ, Valacich J (2007). Motivation and concerns for online sport consumption. J. Sport Manage. 21:521-539.


James J, Trail G (2008). The relevance of team identification to sport consumption behavior intentions. Int. J. Sport Manage. 9:427-440.


Kim Y, Ross S (2015). The effect of sport video gaming on sport brand attitude, attitude strength, and the attitude-behavior relationship. J. Sport Manage. 29:657-571.


Kim Y, Ross S (2006). An exploration of motives in sport video games. Int. J. Sport Market Sponsorship. 8:34-46.


Kim YK, Trail GT, Magnusen MJ (2013). Transition from motivation to behavior: Examining the moderating role of identification (ID) on the relationship between motives and attendance. Int. J. Sport Market. Sponsorship 14:190-211.


Kim Y, Walsh P, Ross S (2008). An examination of the psychological and consumptive behaviors of sport video gamers. Sport Market. Quart. 17:44-53.


Kline RB (1998). Principles and practices of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.


Konijin E, Bijvank M, Bushman B (2007). I wish I were a warrior: The role of wishful identification in the effects of violent video games on aggression in adolescent boys. Dev. Psychol. 43:1038-1044.


Laverie DA, Arnett DB (2000). Factors affecting fan attendance: The influence of identity salience and satisfaction. J. Leis. Res. 32:225-246.


Lewis M, Weber R, Bowman N (2008). "They may be pixels, but they're my pixels:" Developing a metric of character attachment in role-playing video games. Cyber Psychol. Behav. 11:515-518.


Maddison R, Mhurchu CN, Jull A, Jiang Y, Prapavessis H, Rodgers A (2007). Energy expended playing video console games: An opportunity to increase children's physical activity? Pediatr. Exerc. Sci. 19:334-343.


Madrigal R, Chen J (2008). Moderating and mediating effects of team identification in regard to causal attributions and summary judgments following a game outcome. J. Sport Manage. 22:717-733.


Madsen K, Yen S, Wlasiuk L, Newman T, Lustig R (2007). Feasibility of a dance videogame to promote weight loss among overweight children and adolescents. Arch. Pediatrics Adolesc. Med. 161:105-107.


Mael F, Ashforth BE (1992). Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. J. Organ. Behav. 13:103-123.


Magnusen M, Rhee YC, Kim YK (2010). The effect of team identification and game satisfaction on revisit intention: A case of Korean Basketball League spectators. Int. J. Hum. Movement Sci. 4:23-47.


Matsuoka H, Chelladurai P, Harada M (2003). Direct and interaction effects of team identification and satisfaction intention to attend games. Sport Market. Quart. 12:244-253.


Nelson M (2002). Recall of brand placements in computer/video games. J. Advert. Res. 42:80-92.


Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill.


Robinson MJ, Trail GT (2005). Relationships among spectator gender, motives, points of attachment, and sport preference. J. Sport Manage. 19:58-80.


Robinson MJ, Trail GT, Dick RJ, Gilletine AJ (2005). Fans vs. spectators: An analysis of those who attend intercollegiate football games. Sport Market. Quart. 14:43-53.


Satariano A (2015). How fake sports are turning man cave dwellers into millionaires. Bloomberg. 



Satorra A, Bentler PM (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C. C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 399-419.


Schneider E, Lang A, Shin, M, Bradley S (2004). Death with a story: How story impacts emotional, motivational, and physiological response to first-person shooter video games. Hum. Commun. Res. 30:361-375.


Sherry JL, Lucas K, Greenberg B, Lachlan K (2006). Video game uses and gratifications as predictors of use and game preference. In P. Vorderer & J. Bryant (Eds.), Playing computer games: Motives, responses, and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 213-224


Seo WJ, Green BC (2008). Development of the Motivation Scale for Sport Online Consumption. J. Sport Manage. 22:82-109.


Smith GJ, Patterson B, Williams T, Hogg J (1981). A profile of the deeply committed sports fans. Arena Rev. 5:26-44.


Sutton AW, McDonald AM, Milne RG (1997). Creating and fostering fan identification in professional sports. Sports Market. Quart. 6:15-22.


Swanson S, Gwinner K, Larson B, Janda S (2003). Motivations of college student game attendance and word-of-mouth behavior: The impact of gender differences. Sport Market. Quart. 12:151-162.


Tajfel H (1981). Human groups and social categories. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.


Tajfel H, Turner JC (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole.


Tan B, Aziz A, Chua K, Teh K (2001). Aerobic demands of the dance simulation game. Int. J. Sports Medicine, 23:125-129.


Trail GT, Anderson DF, Fink JS (2000). A theoretical model of sport spectator consumption behavior. Int. J. Sport Manage. 1:154-180.


Trail G, Fink JS, Anderson DF (2003). Sport spectator consumption behavior. Sport Market. Quart. 12:8-17.


Wann DL (1993). Aggression among highly identified spectators as a function of their need to maintain a positive social identity. J. Sport Soc. Issues 17:134-143.


Wann DL (2002). Preliminary validation of a measure for assessing identification as a sport fan: The sport fandom questionnaire. Int. J. Sport Manage. 3:103-115.


Wann DL, Branscombe N (1995). Influence of identification with a sport team on objective knowledge and subjective beliefs. Int. J. Sport Psychol. 26:551-567.


Wann DL, Hunter JL, Ryan JA, Wright LA (2001).The relationship between team identification and willingness of sport fans to consider illegally assisting their team. Soc. Behav. Pers. 29:531-536.


Wann DL, Martin J, Grieve F, Gardner L (2008). Social connections at sport events: Attendance and its positive relationship with state social psychological well-being. North Am. J. Psychol 10:229-238.


Weston R, Gore PA (2006). A brief guide to structural equation modeling. The Counseling Psychologist, 34:719-751.


Yang M, Roskos-Ewoldsen D, Dinu L, Arpan L (2006). The effectiveness of "in-game" advertising. J. Advert. 35:143-152.


APA Sung, I.L. H., & Magnusen, M. (2017). From virtual reality to reality: Examining the relationship between sport video gaming and sport consumption behaviors. Journal of Physical Education and Sport Management, 8(4), 41-49.
Chicago Sung, I.L. Hong and Marshall Magnusen. "From virtual reality to reality: Examining the relationship between sport video gaming and sport consumption behaviors." Journal of Physical Education and Sport Management 8, no. 4 (2017): 41-49.
MLA Sung, I.L. Hong and Marshall Magnusen. "From virtual reality to reality: Examining the relationship between sport video gaming and sport consumption behaviors." Journal of Physical Education and Sport Management 8.4 (2017): 41-49.

Subscription Form