Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology
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Article Number - 990EF4E63787


Vol.9(5), pp. 99-105 , May 2017
DOI: 10.5897/JPHE2016.0882
ISSN: 2141-2316



Full Length Research Paper

A 14 year review of neonatal tetanus at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Northwest Nigeria



Alhaji A. Aliyu
  • Alhaji A. Aliyu
  • Department of Community Medicine and Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar
Isa Abdulkadir
  • Isa Abdulkadir
  • Department of Community Medicine and Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar
Lawal Amadu
  • Lawal Amadu
  • Department of Community Medicine and Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar
Tukur Dahiru
  • Tukur Dahiru
  • Department of Community Medicine and Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 08 October 2016  Accepted: 20 February 2017  Published: 30 May 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is still one of the major preventable causes of neonatal death in Nigeria. It is a disease of poverty, adverse social and environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to review neonatal tetanus cases, determine the prevalence, disease outcome and what possible interventions can be done in the study area to reduce its prevalence. This was a retrospective study of cases of NNT seen in Special Care Baby Unit of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria from 2001 to 2014. Case notes of neonates with clinical diagnosis of tetanus who were admitted into the unit were retrieved for analysis. Data extracted included: socio-demographic characteristics, antenatal clinic (ANC) history, TT immunization, place of delivery and disease outcome. There were a total of 60 cases of NNT during the period; this gave an annual prevalence of 4.3 per year. Mean age of neonates was 9.3 ± 5.1 days, M: F ratio was 4.0:1.0. Mean age of mothers was 23.2 ± 4.0 years, majority (55%) had no formal education, 48% had ≤ 2 ANC visits, and more than 70% had no TT immunization and delivered at home. Commonest probable portal of entry of infection was umbilicus (70%) and major presenting symptoms/signs were: spasms (81.7%), poor suckling (81.7%), inability to open mouth (45%) and fever 45%, respectively. Site of infection and presence of fever were associated poor outcome. Mortality among neonates who had short incubation period (≤ 6 days), umbilicus as probable site of infection (P=0.006) and presence of fever (P=0.014) were significantly higher for non-survivors than survivors. Overall, case fatality rate (CFR) was 56.7%. The review revealed that CFR is still unacceptably high for a disease that can be prevented and eventually eliminated with cost effective and affordable public health interventions. All the 3 tiers of government need to re-focus the National Immunization Policy together with sustained immunization programmes throughout all the communities in Nigeria. There is urgent need for health education at community level on the importance of ANC and mass immunization regardless of age in order to achieve the goal of NNT elimination.

 

Key words: Neonatal tetanus (NNT), immunization, prevention, tertiary hospital, Nigeria.

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APA Aliyu, A. A., Abdulkadir, I., Amadu, L. & Dahiru, T. (2017). A 14 year review of neonatal tetanus at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Northwest Nigeria. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 9(5), 99-105.
Chicago Alhaji A. Aliyu, Isa Abdulkadir, Lawal Amadu and Tukur Dahiru. "A 14 year review of neonatal tetanus at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Northwest Nigeria." Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 9, no. 5 (2017): 99-105.
MLA Alhaji A. Aliyu, et al. "A 14 year review of neonatal tetanus at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Northwest Nigeria." Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 9.5 (2017): 99-105.
   
DOI 10.5897/JPHE2016.0882
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JPHE/article-abstract/990EF4E63787

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