Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy
Subscribe to JPP
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 3D6E0A463516


Vol.9(4), pp. 44-50 , April 2017
DOI: 10.5897/JPP2017.0444
ISSN: 2141-2502



Full Length Research Paper

Mystroxylon aethiopicum chloroform root bark extracts phytochemical analysis using gas chromatography mass spectrometry



Mhuji Kilonzo
  • Mhuji Kilonzo
  • School of Life Sciences and Bio-Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Patrick A. Ndakidemi
  • Patrick A. Ndakidemi
  • School of Life Sciences and Bio-Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Musa Chacha
  • Musa Chacha
  • School of Life Sciences and Bio-Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 03 January 2017  Accepted: 02 March 2017  Published: 30 April 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Mystroxylon aethiopicum has been used by many ethnic groups in Africa for the management of hemorrhagic diarrhea, stomachache, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections coughs, hypertension and gonorrhea. This study was carried out to identify low molecular weight phytochemicals present in the root bark extract of M. aethiopicum with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of various low molecular weight phytochemicals which belongs to four groups of secondary metabolites namely sesquiterpenes, dieterpenes, monoterpenes and fatty acids. The presence of these phytochemicals in the plant extract may be positively associated with pharmacological properties of M. aethiopicum and therefore justifying the ethnomedical usage of the plant.

 

Key words: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, pharmacological properties, phytochemicals.

Al-Farhan KA, Warad I, Al-Resayes SI, Fouda MM, Ghazzali M (2010). Synthesis, structural chemistry and antimicrobial activity of borneol derivative. Central Eur. J. Chem. 8(5):1127-1133.
Crossref

 

Ammal RM, Bai GV (2013). GC-MS Determination of bioactive constituents of Heliotropium indicum leaf. J. Med. Plants 1(6):30-33.

 
 

Asif M, Shafaei A, Jafari SF, Ezzat MO, Majid AS, Oon CE, Petersen SH, Kono K, Majid AM (2016). Isoledene from Mesua ferrea Oleo-gum resin induces apoptosis in HCT 116 cells through ROS-mediated modulation of multiple proteins in the apoptotic pathways: A mechanistic study. Toxicol. Letters 257:84-96.
Crossref

 
 

Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsoud SK (2016). Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review. J. Pharm. Anal. 6(2):71-79.
Crossref

 
 

Barrero A, Quilez MJ, Lara A, Herrador M (2005). Antimicrobial activity of sesquiterpenes from the essential oil of Juniperus thurifera wood. Plant Med. 71(1):67–71.
Crossref

 
 

Baskaran A, Karthikeyan V, Rajasekaran CS (2016). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of ethanolic extracts of Barleria longiflora Lf. World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 5(4):1233-1246.

 
 

Boer HJ, Koola A, Broberg A, William R, Mziray WR, Levenfors JJ (2005). Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity of some herbal remedies from Tanzania. J. Ethnopharmacol. 96(3):461-469.
Crossref

 
 

Bohlin L, Bruhn JG (1999). Bioassay methods in natural product research and drug development. Springer Science & Business Media. Second edition: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherland. pp. 245-248.
Crossref

 
 

Brilhante RS, Lima RA, Caetano EP, Leite JJ, Castelo DD, Ribeiro JF, Bandeira, TD, Aguiar CR, Monteiro AJ, Sidrim JJ, Rocha MF (2013). Effect of farnesol on growth, ergosterol biosynthesis, and cell permeability in Coccidioides posadasii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57(5):2167-2170.
Crossref

 
 

Burkil HM (2004). The useful plants of west tropical Africa. First edition. Publisher Royal Botanic Gardens: Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. pp. 25-28.

 
 

Burrows JE, Willis CK (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau: An account of the Nyika National Parks of Malawi and Zambia. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network. Report No. 31. SABONET, Pretoria.

 
 

Çelik K, Toğar B, Türkez H, Taşpinar N (2014). In vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic, and oxidative effects of acyclic sesquiterpene farnesene. Turk. J. Biol. 38(2):253-259.
Crossref

 
 

Curtis BA, Mannheimer CA (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek. pp. 406-410.

 
 

Delaquis PJ, Stanich K, Girard B, Mazza G (2002). Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of Dill, Cilantro, Coriander and Eucalyptus essential oils. Int. J. Food Microb. 74(1):101-109.
Crossref

 
 

Devi J, Muthu AK (2014). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bioactive constituents in the ethanolic extract of Saccharum spontaneum Linn. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 6(2):755-759.

 
 

Eisenhauer N, Klier M, Partsch S, Sabais AC, Scherber C, Weisser WW, Scheu S (2009). No interactive effects of pesticides and plant diversity on soil microbial biomass and respiration. J. Appl. Soil Ecol. 42(1):31-36.
Crossref

 
 

Gadir SA (2012). Assessment of bioactivity of some Sudanese medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 4(12):5145-5148.

 
 

Ghannadi A, Rabbani M, Ghaemmaghami L, Malekian N (2012). Phytochemical screening and essential oil analysis of one of the Persian sedges; Cyperus rotundus. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 3(2):424-427.

 
 

González A, Gutiérrez CM, Moenne A (2014). Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and increase in TRR/TRX activities promote activation and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees. Molecules 19(6):7356-7367.
Crossref

 
 

Gurbuz I, Yesilada E, Demirci B, Sezik E, Demirci F, Baser KH (2013). Characterization of volatiles and anti-ulcerogenic effect of Turkish sweetgum balsam (Styrax liquidus). J. Ethnopharmacol. 148(1):332-336.
Crossref

 
 

Hadri AE, Gó mez del Río MA, Sanz JS, Gonzá lez CA, Idaomar M, Ribas OB, Benedí GJ, Sánchez MA (2010). Cytotoxic activity of á-humulene and transcaryophyllene from Salvia officinalis in animal and human tumor cells. Real Acad. Nac. Farm. 76 (3):343-356.

 
 

Ho PL, Chiu SS, Chan MY, Ang I, Chow KH, Lau YL (2011). Changes in nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype distribution of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae before and after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Hong Kong. J. Diagnostic Micro. Infect. Dis. 71(4):327-334.
Crossref

 
 

Irish J (2012). Namibia biodiversity database: Mystroxylon aethiopicum in Namibia. http://www.biodiversity.org.na/taxondisplay.php?nr=4902.

 
 

Iwu MM (2014). Handbook of African medicinal plants. Second edition. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Florida, United States. pp. 28-32.
Crossref

 
 

Kajalakshmi K, Mohan VR (2016). Determination of bioactive components of Myxsopyrum seratullum (oleaceae) stemm by GC-MS analysis. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 7:36-42.
Crossref

 
 

Keskes H, Belhadj S, Jlail L, El Feki A, Damak M, Sayadi S, Allouche N (2016). LC-MS–MS and GC-MS analyses of biologically active extracts and fractions from Tunisian Juniperus phoenice leaves. J. Pharm. Biol. 55(1):1-8.

 
 

Kokwaro JO (1993). Medicinal plants of East Africa. Second edition: Published and printed by Kenya literature bureau, Nairobi Kenya. pp. 176-177.

 
 

Krist S, Banovac D, Tabanca N, Wedge DE, Gochev VK, Wanner J, Schmidt E, Jirovetz L (2015). Antimicrobial activity of nerolidol and its derivatives against airborne microbes and further biological activities. Nat. Prod. Com. 10(1):143-148.

 
 

Kubo I, Muroi H, Himejima M (1992). Antibacterial activity of totarol and its potentiation. J. Nat. Prod. 55(10):1436-1440.
Crossref

 
 

Kumar PP, Kumaravel S, Lalitha C (2010). Screening of antioxidant activity, total phenolics and GC-MS study of Vitex negundo. Afr. J. Biochem. Res. 4(7):191-195.

 
 

Lavanya K, Prasada RA, Chakravarthy MB (2014). A review on biological and chemical properties of Cyperus species. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci. 5(5):1142-55.

 
 

Lee YJ, Park SY, Kim SG, Kang JS, Lee SJ, Yoon S, Kim YH, Bae YS, Choi YW (2010). Identification of a novel compound that inhibits iNOS and COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages from Schisandra chinensis. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Com. 391(4):1687-1692.
Crossref

 
 

Legault J, Pichette A (2007). Potentiating effect of β‐caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α‐humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59(12):1643-1647.
Crossref

 
 

Li R, Yang JJ, Wang YF, Sun Q, Hu HB (2014). Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the stem and leaf essential oils from Piper flaviflorum from Xishuangbanna, SW China. Nat. Prod. Com. 9(7):1011-1014.

 
 

Mancini E, Arnold NA, De Martino L, De Feo V, Formisano C, Rigano D, Senatore F (2009). Chemical composition and phytotoxic effects of essential oils of Salvia hierosolymitana Boiss and Salvia multicaulis Vahl simplicifolia Boiss growing wild in Lebanon. Molecules 14(11):4725-4736.
Crossref

 
 

Manter DK, Kelsey RG (2007). Antimicrobial activity of extractable conifer heartwood compounds toward Phytophthora ramorum. J. Chem. Ecol. 33(11):2133-2147.
Crossref

 
 

Merghache D, Boucherit OZ, Merghache S, Chikhi I, Selles C, Boucherit K (2014). Chemical composition, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of Algerian Eryngium tricuspidatum essential oil. Nat. Prod. Res. 28(11):795-807.
Crossref

 
 

Mickymaray S, Al Aboody MS, Rath PK, Annamalai P, Nooruddin T (2016). Screening and antibacterial efficacy of selected Indian medicinal plants. Asian Pacif. J. Trop. Biomed. 6(3):185-191.
Crossref

 
 

Mossa JS, El‐Feraly FS, Muhammad I (2004). Antimycobacterial constituents from Juniperus procera, Ferula communis and Plumbago zeylanica and their in vitro synergistic activity with isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Phytother. Res. 18(11):934-937.
Crossref

 
 

Mulyaningsih S, Sporer F, Zimmermann S, Reichling J, Wink M (2010). Synergistic properties of the terpenoids aromadendrene and 1, 8-cineole from the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. J. Phytomed. 17(13):1061-1066.
Crossref

 
 

Naidoo N, Thangaraj K, Odhav B, Baijnath H (2009). Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus. Afr. J. Trad. Complimentary Altern. Med. 6:395.

 
 

Pattnaik S, Subramanyam VR, Bapaji M, Kole CR (1996). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aromatic constituents of essential oils. Microbiology 89(358):39-46.

 
 

Pérez A, Cirio AT, Rivas VM Aranda RS, Torres NW (2011). Activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae of the essential oil and d-cadinene isolated from Schinus molle fruit. J. Essential Oil Res. 23(11):25-28.
Crossref

 
 

Pokharen N, Dahal S, Anuradha M (2011). Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of leaf extract of Euphorbia neriifolia. J. Med. Plants Res. 5(24):5785-5788.

 
 

Prabhadevi V, Sahaya SS, Johnson M, Venkatramani B, Janakiraman N (2012). Phytochemical studies on Allamanda cathartica using GC–MS. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Biom. 2(2):550-554.
Crossref

 
 

Rajeswari N, RamaLakshmi S, Muthuchelian K (2011). GC-MS analysis of bioactive components from the ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium dicoccum. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 3(3):792-798.

 
 

Rangasamy K, Namasivayam E (2014). In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of isolongifolene. Asian J. Biol. Sci. 7(1):13-23.
Crossref

 
 

Rasheed HM, Khan T, Wahid F, Khan R, Shah AJ (2015). Chemical composition and vasorelaxant and antispasmodic effects of essential oil from Rosa indica petals. Evidence-Based Comp. Altern. Med. 9:1-6.

 
 

Roukia H, Mahfoud HM, Ould MD (2013). Chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from Teucrium polium geyrii (Labiatae). J. Med. Plants Res. 7(20):1506-1510.

 
 

Sadashiva CT, Sharanappa P, Remashree AB, Raghu AV, Udayan PS, Balachandran I (2010). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from bark of Pittosporum dasycaulon. Adv. J. Biol. Res. 4(6):301-304.

 
 

Sagwan S, Rao DV, Sharma RA (2013). GC/MS spectroscopic analysis of some different in vivo methanolic plant extracts of Maytenus emarginata (willd.): an important medicinal plants. Int. J. Instit. Pharm. Life Sci. 3(5):76-84.

 
 

Sarada K, Margret RJ, Mohan VR (2011). GC–MS determination of bioactive components of Naringi crenulata (roxb) nicolson. Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res. 3(3):1548-1555.

 
 

Selvamangai G, Bhaskar A (2012). GC–MS analysis of phytocomponents in the methanolic extract of Eupatorium triplinerve. Asian Pacif. J. Trop. Biomed. 2(3):1329-1332.
Crossref

 
 

Sermakkani M, Thangapandian V (2012). GC-MS analysis of Cassia italica leaf methanol extract. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 5(2):90-94.

 
 

Shaik G, Sujatha N, Mehar SK (2014). Medicinal plants as source of antibacterial agents to counter Klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci. 4(1):135-147.

 
 

Soares BV, Morais SM, Dos Santos Fontenelle RO, Queiroz VA, Vila-Nova NS, Pereira C, Brito ES, Neto MA, Brito EH, Cavalcante CS, Castelo-Branco DS (2012). Antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruits. Molecules 17(7):8439-8448.
Crossref

 
 

Solis C, Becerra J, Flores C, Robledo J, Silva M (2004). Antibacterial and antifungal terpenes from Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin. J. Chilean Chem. Soc. 49(2):157-161.
Crossref

 
 

Su YC, Ho CL (2013). Composition and two activities of the leaf essential oil of Litsea acuminata (Blume) kurata from Taiwan. Rec. Nat. Prod. 7(1):27-34.

 
 

Tabanca N, Kirimer N, Demirci B, Demirci F, Baser KH (2001). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Micromeria cristata subsp. phrygia and the enantiomeric distribution of borneol. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49(9):4300-4303.
Crossref

 
 

Togashi N, Inoue Y, Hamashima H, Takano A (2008). Effects of two terpene alcohols on the antibacterial activity and the mode of action of farnesol against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 13(12):3069-3076.
Crossref

 
 

Vik A, James A, Gundersen LL (2007). Screening of terpenes and derivatives for antimycobacterial activity; identification of geranylgeraniol and geranylgeranyl acetate as potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. Plant Med. 73(13):1410-1412.
Crossref

 
 

Vukovic N, Milosevic T, Sukdolak S, Solujic S (2008). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the antibacterial activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of Teucrium montanum. J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 73(3):299-305.
Crossref

 
 

Yang W, Zhao A, Congai Z, Qizhi L, Wangpeng S (2014). Composition of the essential oil of Cynanchum mongolicum (Asclepiadaceae) and insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphidiae). Pharmacog. Magazine 10(1):130-134.

 

 


APA Kilonzo, M., Ndakidemi, P. A., & Chacha, M. (2017). Mystroxylon aethiopicum chloroform root bark extracts phytochemical analysis using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 9(4), 44-50.
Chicago Mhuji Kilonzo, Patrick A. Ndakidemi and Musa Chacha. "Mystroxylon aethiopicum chloroform root bark extracts phytochemical analysis using gas chromatography mass spectrometry." Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 9, no. 4 (2017): 44-50.
MLA Mhuji Kilonzo, Patrick A. Ndakidemi and Musa Chacha. "Mystroxylon aethiopicum chloroform root bark extracts phytochemical analysis using gas chromatography mass spectrometry." Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 9.4 (2017): 44-50.
   
DOI 10.5897/JPP2017.0444
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JPP/article-abstract/3D6E0A463516

Subscription Form