Journal of
Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy

  • Abbreviation: J. Pharmacognosy Phytother.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2502
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPP
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 189

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of geographical location and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Ivoirian Chromolaena odorata (L) R. M. King & Robinson (Asteraceae)

Daouda Toure
  • Daouda Toure
  • Unite des Antibiotiques, des Substances Naturelles et de la Surveillance des Resistances des Micro-organismes aux Anti-Infectieux, Laboratoire de Bacteriologie-virologie, Institut Pasteur, 01 BP 490 Abidjan 01, Cote d'Ivoire.
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Bi Koffi F. P Kouame
  • Bi Koffi F. P Kouame
  • Elucidation of Biosynthesis by Isotopic Spectrometry Group, CEISAM, LUNAM-CNRS UMR6230, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes, France.
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Gustave Bedi
  • Gustave Bedi
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Biologique, UFR SSMT, 08 BP 582 Abidjan 08, Universite Felix Houphouet Boigny, Cote d'Ivoire.
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Allico Joseph
  • Allico Joseph
  • Laboratoire de Biochimie Fondamentale et Medicale, Institut Pasteur.01 BP 490 Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.
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Nathalie Guessennd
  • Nathalie Guessennd
  • Unite des Antibiotiques, des Substances Naturelles et de la Surveillance des Resistances des Micro-organismes aux Anti-Infectieux, Laboratoire de Bacteriologie-virologie, Institut Pasteur, 01 BP 490 Abidjan 01, Cote d'Ivoire.
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Raphael Oussou
  • Raphael Oussou
  • Elucidation of Biosynthesis by Isotopic Spectrometry Group, CEISAM, LUNAM-CNRS UMR6230, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes, France.
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Jean Claude Chalchat
  • Jean Claude Chalchat
  • Laboratoire de Mathematiques Physique Chimie, UPR. BP 150 Daloa, Universite Jean Lorougnon Guede, Cote d'Ivoire.
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Mireille Dosso
  • Mireille Dosso
  • Unite des Antibiotiques, des Substances Naturelles et de la Surveillance des Resistances des Micro-organismes aux Anti-Infectieux, Laboratoire de Bacteriologie-virologie, Institut Pasteur, 01 BP 490 Abidjan 01, Cote d'Ivoire.
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Felix Tonzibo
  • Felix Tonzibo
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Biologique, UFR SSMT, 08 BP 582 Abidjan 08, Universite Felix Houphouet Boigny, Cote d'Ivoire.
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  •  Received: 21 January 2014
  •  Accepted: 03 June 2014
  •  Published: 30 September 2014

Abstract

Essential oil yield and chemical composition of fresh leaves of Chromolaena odorata obtained by hydro-distillation collected from five different sites in Abidjan were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From each locality, leaves were collected during sunny period to look for some correlation between composition and geographical variation. As a result, fifty four components were characterized, representing between all essential oil samples. From five investigated sample, all of the essential oil presented seven major components: germacrene D (15 to 20%), geijerene (14 to 17%), pregeijerene (11 to 12%), α-pinene (7 to 10%), β-caryophyllene (7 to 10%), β-pinene (4 to 5%) and δ-cadinene (3 to 5%). All essential oils considered were characterized by a clear predominance of hydrocarbon compounds chiefly sesquiterpenes (71.92 to 77.68%) and monoterpenes (15.71 to 18.38%). With only one exception, storage of the material plant, seasonal and geographical variation have no effect on the yield. Antibacterial activities of the oils from one location were tested against seven bacteria. The inhibition zones and minimum microbial concentration (MIC) for bacterial strains, which were sensitive to C. odorata essential oil, were in the range of 8 to 16 mm and 64 to 256 µg/ml, respectively. The oils showed moderate activity against all tested bacteria.

 

Key words: Chromolaena odorata, essential oil, chemical composition, germacrene D, geigerene, pregeigerene, antimicrobial activity.