Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy
Subscribe to JPP
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 7B02BA440210


Vol.5(10), pp. 170-177 , October 2013
DOI: 10.5897/JPP2013.0285
ISSN: 2141-2502



Review

Medicinal importance of genus Origanum: A review


Shayista Chishti1*, Zahoor A. Kaloo1 and Phalestine Sultan2




1Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, J&K, India.

2Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Sanatnagar, Srinagar, J&K, India.


Email: shayista29nov@rediffmail.com






 Accepted: 01 August 2013  Published: 31 October 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Genus Origanum is important medicinally as it has antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, antithrombin, antimutagenic, angiogenic, antiparasetic and antihyperglycaemic activities. Phytochemical investigations of the species of this genus have resulted in the extraction of a number of important bioactive compounds. This emphasizes on the need of extensive study for reporting the additional information on the medicinal importance of other unattended species of genus Origanum.

 

Key words: Lamiaceae, secondary metabolites, Origanum, carvacrol.

Abdel-Massih RM, Fares R, Bazzi S, El-Chami N, Baydoun E (2010). The apoptotic and antiproliferative activity of Origanum majorana extracts on human leukemic cell line. Leuk. Res. 34:1052-1056.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2009.09.018
PMid:19853912
 
Aeschbach R, Loliger J, Scott C, Murcia A, Butler J, Halliwell B, Aruoma OI (1994). Antitoxidant actions of thymol, Carvacrol, 6– gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem. Toxicol. 32: 31-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(84)90033-4
 
Ahmad N, Fazal H, Abbasi BH (2011 a). In vitro larvicidal and antioxidative enzyme activities in Ginkgo biloba, Stevia rebaundiana and Parthenium hysterophororus. Asian pacific J. Trop. Med. 4(3):169-175.
 
Ahmad N, Fazal H, Abbasi BH (2011 b). Free radical scavenging (DPPH) potential in nine Mentha species. Toxicology and Industrial Health, Doi 10. 1177/0748233711407238.
 
Ahmad N, Fazal H, Abbasi BH, Farooq S (2010 b). Efficient free radical scavenging activity of Ginkgo biloba, Stevia rebaundiana and Parthenium hysterophorous leaves through DPPH (2, 2– diphenyl –1– picrylhydrozyl). Int. J. Phytomed. 2:231-239.
 
Ahmad N, Hina F, Bilal HA, Muhammad R, Tariq M, Nighat F (2010a). Efficient regeneration and antioxidant potential in regenerated tissues of Piper nigrum L. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ culture, 102:129-134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11240-010-9712-x
 
Aligiannis N, Kalpoutzakis E, Mitaku S, Chinou IB (2001). Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of The essential Oils of Two Origanum species. J. Agr. Food Chem. 49:4168-4170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf001018w
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf001494m
PMid:11559104
 
Andreas JK, Dimitra EKS (2013). Field studies of nitrogen application on Greek Oregano(Origanum vulgare ssp.hirtum(link)Ietswaart) essential oil during two cultivation seasons. Ind. Crops Prod. 46:246-252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.01.021
 
Arnold N, Bellomaria B, Valentini G, Arnold HJ (1993). Comparative study of the essential oils from three species of Origanum growing wild in the eastern Mediterranean region. J. Essent. Oil Res. 5(1) :71-77.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1993.9698172
 
Arras G, Picci V (1984). Attivita fungistatica di alcuni olii essenziali nei contronti dei principali agenti di alterazioni post-racolta dei frutti di agrumi. Rivista della Ortofrutticoltura Italiana 68:361-366.
 
Aureli P, Costantini A, Zolea S (1992). Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. J. Food Prot. 55(5):344–348.
 
Bakkali F (2005). Cytotoxicity and gene induction by some essential oils in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. Mutat. Res. 585(1-2):1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2005.03.013
PMid:15975845
 
Bakkali F, Averbbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M (2008). Biological effects of essential oils – A review. Food Chem.Toxicol. 46:446-475.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.106
PMid:17996351
 
Baser KHC (2002). The Turkish Origanum species. Oregano, the Genera Origanum and Lippia, Ed., Kintzios SE, London and New York, Taylor and Francis, PP:109-126.
 
Baser KHC (2008). Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Carvacrol and Carvacrol Bearing Essential Oils. Curr. Pharm. Design 14:3106-3120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161208786404227
 
Başer KHC, Buchbauer G (2010). Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology and Applications, CRC Pres, Boca Raton, London, New York.
 
Baser KHC, Kurkcuoglu M, Demirci B, Ozek T (2003). The Essential oil of Origanum syriacum L .Var. sinaicum (Bioss.) Ietswaart. Flavour Frag. J. 18:98-99.
 
Baser KHC, Ozek T, Kurkcuoglu M, Tumen G (1994). The essential oil of Origanum vulgare Subsp. hirtum of Turkish origin. J. Essent. Oil Res. 6:31-36
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1994.9698321
 
Baser KHC, Tumen G (1992). Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Essent. Oil Res. 4:139-142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1992.9698035
 
Baydar H, Osman S, Ozkan G, Karadoa T (2004). Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Origanum, Thymbra and Satureja species with commercial importance in Turkey. Food Control, 15:169-172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(03)00028-8
 
Bendahou A, Muselli A, Grigmon-Dubois M, Benyoucef M, Desjobert JM, Bernardini AF, Costa J (2008). Antimicrobial activity and Chemical composition of Origanum glandulosum Desf. Essential Oil and Extract Obtained by Microwave extraction :Comparison with Hydrodistillation. Food Chem.106:132-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.050
 
Biondi D, Cianci P, Geraci C, Ruberto G, Piatteli M (1993). Antimicrobial activity and Chemical Composition of essential oils from Sicilian aromatic plants. Flavour Frag. J. 8:331-337.
 
Bouchra C(2003). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven Moroccan Labiatae against Botrytis cinera Pers: Fr. J. Ethnopharmacol. 89(1):165-169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00275-7
 
Bouhdid S (2008). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Origanum compactum essential oil. Afr. J. Biotech. 7(10):1563-1570.
 
Bouhdid S (2009). Investigation of functional and morphological changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus cells induced by Origanum compactum essential oil. J. Appl. Microbiol.106(5):1558-1568.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.04124.x
PMid:19226402
 
Bown D (2001). The Herb Society of America new encyclopedia of herbs & their uses. New York: DK.
 
Burt S (2004). Essential oils :their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods – a review. In Int. J. Food Microbiol. 94:223-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.03.022
PMid:15246235
 
Burt SA, Reinders RD (2003). Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli 0157: H7. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 36:162-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-765X.2003.01285.x
PMid:12581376
 
Cervato G, Carabelli M, Gervasio S, Cittera A, Cazzola R, Cestaro B (2000). Antioxidant properties of Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Leaf extracts. J. Food Biochem. 24:453-465.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4514.2000.tb00715.x
 
Chandler-Ezell K (2004). Folklore of oregano. The herbarist. 70:16-24. (HSA Library).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jfr.2005.0001
http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/JFR.2004.41.2-3.125
http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/JFR.2004.41.2-3.127
 
Chiez R, (1984). The Macdonald Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Macdonald Co. Ltd, London, pp. 212-297.
 
Christos CL, Konstantia G, Skaltsa E, Chinou L (2010). Dittany of Crete: A botanical and ethnopharmacological review.. J. Εthnopharmacol. 131:229-241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2009.09.004
 
Cleff M, Meinerz AR, Xavier M, Schuch LF, Carlos M (2010). In vitro activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil against Candida species. Braz. J. Microbiol. 41:116-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822010000100018
PMid:24031471 PMCid:PMC3768597
 
Collin ME, Ducos de Lahitte J, Larribau E, Boue T (1989). Activite des huiles essentielles de Labiees sur Ascosphaera apis et traitement d'un rucher. Apidologie 20:221-228.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:19890304
 
Corteau R (1986). Biochemistry of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes of the essential oils. Herbs, spices and medicinal plant : Recent advances in Botany, Horticulture and Pharmacology. Oryx press, Phoenix, AZ, 1:81-135.
 
Curtis OF, Shetty K (1996). Growth medium effects of Vitrification, total phenolics, chlorophyll and water content of in vitro propagated Oregano cloves. Acta Horticulturae, 426:489-497.
 
D'antuono LF, Galleti GC, Bocchini P (2000). Variability of essential oil content and composition of Origanum vulgare L. populations from a North Mediterranean Area (Liguria region, Northern Italy). Annals of Bot. 86:471–478.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.2000.1205
 
Daferera DJ, Basil N, Ziogas N, Polissiou MG (2003). The effectiveness of plant essential oils on Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavi-bacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Crop Prot. 22: 39-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(02)00095-9
 
Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polissiou MG (2000). GC – MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity and Pencillium digitatum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:2576–2581.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf990835x
PMid:10888587
 
Davis PH (1982). Flora of Turkey and East Eagen Islands. Edinburgh at the university press 7:309.
 
de Vincenzi M, Mancini E (1997). Monographs on botanical flavouring substances used in foods. Part VI. Fitoterapia 68(1):49-61.
 
Dorman HJD, Deans SG (20000. Antimocrobial agents from plants: Antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88(2):308–316.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.x
PMid:10736000
 
Duman H, Baser KHC, Aytec Z (1998). Two new species and a new hybrid from Anatolia. Turk. J. Bot. 22:51–55.
 
Dundar E, Olgun EG, Isiksoya S, Kukcuoglu M, Baser KHC, Bal C (2008). The effects of Intra-rectal and Intra-peritoneal Application of Origanum onites L. essential oil on 2, 4, 6 -Trinitrobenzene sulfonic Acid induced colitis in the Rat. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59:399–408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2007.11.009
PMid:18222658
 
Elgayyar M, Draughon FA, Golden DA, Mount JR (2001). Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Plants against Selected Pathogenic and Saprophytic Microorganisms. J. Food Protect. 64: 1019–1024.
PMid:11456186
 
Facciola S (1998). Cornucopia II: a source book of edible plants. Vista: Kampong Publications(HSA Library).
 
Farag RS, Daw ZY, Abo-Raya SH (1989). Influence of some spice essential oils on Aspergilus parasiticus growth and production of aflatoxins in a synthetic medium. J. Food Sci. 54:74–76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1989.tb08571.x
 
Fischer NH (1991). Methods in Plant Biochemistry, (Eds, B. C. Charlwood and D. V. Banthrope). Academic Press, London, 7:187.
 
Fleisher A, Fleisher Z (1988). Identification of Biblical Hyssop and origin of the traditional use of Oregano-group herbs in the Mediterranean region. Econ. Bot. 42:232–241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02858924
 
Force M, Sparks WS, Ronzio RA (2000). Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of Oregano. In vivo Phytother. Res. 14(3):213-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(200005)14:3<213::AID-PTR583>3.3.CO;2-L
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(200005)14:3<213::AID-PTR583>3.0.CO;2-U
 
Gardner J (1989). Holy land herbs revisited. The herbarist. 55:69-73. (HSA Library).
 
Gianni S, Maietti S, Muzzoli M, Scaglianti M, Manfredini S, Radice M, Bruni R (2005). Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods. Food Chem. 91:621–632.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.06.031
 
Gotsiou P, Naxakis G, Skoula M (2002). Diversity in the composition of monoterpenoids of Origanum microphyllum (Labiatae). Biochem.sytem. ecol. 30:865–879.
 
Goun E, Cunnigham G, Krasnykch S, Miles H (2002). Antithrombin activity of some constituents from Origanum vulgare. Fitoterapia 73:692-694.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00245-9
 
Guenther E (1949). The Essential Oils, Van Nostraand Co, New York. vol.3:535.
 
Guenther E (1972). The Essential Oil. The production of essential oils: methods of distillation, effleurage, maceration, and extraction with volatile solvents. History – Origin in plants, production analysis. In Guenther, E (Ed). Krieger Pub. Co., Malobar, FL,1:85–188.
 

Harpaz S, Glatman L, Drabkin V, Gelman A (2003). Effects of herbal essential oils used to extend the shelf life of fresh water-reared Asian sea fish (Lates calcarifer). J. Food Prot. 66:410–417.
PMid:12636293

Harvala C, Skaltsa H (1986). Contribution a l'etude chimique d'Origanum dictamnus L. 1 recommunication. Plantes Méd. Phytothér. Tome 20(4):300–304.
 
Hervala C, Menounos P, Argyriadou N (1987). Essential oil from Origanum dictamnus. Planta Med. 53(1):107-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-962640
PMid:17268981
 
Houghton PJ (2000). Use of small scale bioassays in the discovery of novel drugs from natural sources. Phytother. Res. 14:419-423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-1573(200009)14:6<419::AID-PTR720>3.3.CO;2-U
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-1573(200009)14:6<419::AID-PTR720>3.0.CO;2-2
 
Houmani Z, Samir A, George N, Melponin S (2002). The essential oil composition of Algerian Zaatar: Origanum spp. and Thymus spp. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants 9(4):275-280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J044v09n04_03
 
Hummer KA, Caraon CF, Rilet TV (1999). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extract. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86:985–990.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00780.x
 
Ietswaart JH (1980). A taxonomic revision of the genus Origanum (Labiatae), Leiden Botanical series, Leiden University Press, The Hague, Leiden. Vol. 4
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-9156-9
 
Jackson SAL, Hay RKM (1994). Characteristics of varieties of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) for use in the UK: oil content, composition and related characters. Ann. Hort. Sci. 69:275–281.
 
Johannes N, Christina B, Freidrisch P, Jan L, Chlodwig FM (2002). Distribution of cis sabinene hydrate acetate chemotype in accessions of marjoram (Origanum marjorana L.). Euphytica 127:69 –74 CA 2003, 138, 103585.
 
Jones DB 1973). The great dittany of Crete-then and now. The herbarist. 39:13-18(HSA Library).
 
Kamela MS, Assafa MH, Hasaneana HA, Ohtanib K, Kasaib R, Yamasakib K (2001). Monoterpene glucosides from Origanum syriacum. Phytochemistry 58:1149-1152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00386-7
 
Karioti A, Vrahimi-Hadjilouca T, Droushiotis D, Rancic A, Hadjipavlou-Litina DS (2006). Analysis of the Essential Oil of Origanum dubium Growing Wild in Cyprus. Investigation of its Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity. Planta Med. 72(14):1330-1334.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-947255
PMid:17022006
 
Karousou R (1995). Taxonomic studies on the Cretan Labiatae: Distribution, morphology and essential oils. Ph.D Thesis, Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (in Greek,English summary).
 
Kintzios SE (2002a). Profile of the multifaceted prince of the herbs. In: Kintzios SE (Ed.) Oregano : The Genera Origanum and Lippia. Medicinal and Aromatic plants Industrial Profiles 25. Taylor and Francis/ CRC Press USA, PP 236–242.
 
Kokkini S (1997). Taxonomy, diversity and distribution of Origanum species. In: Padulosi S, (ed.) Oregano, 14. Proceedings of IPGRI International workshop. Italy, Rome, pp. 2–12.
 
Komaitis ME, Revinthi-Moraiti K, Evangelatos G (1988). The lipid composition of fresh Origanum dictamnus leaves. Food Chem. 27(1):25-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(88)90033-7
 
Kotb F (1985). Medicinal plants in Libya, 632, Arab Encyclopedia House.
 
Koukoulitsa C, Zika C, Hadjipavlou–Litina D, Demopoulos VJ, Skaltsa H (2006). Inhibitory effect of polar oregano extracts on aldose reductase and soybean lipoxygenase in vitro. Phytother. Res. 20:605–606.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1901
PMid:16691547
 
Kulisic T, Radoni A, Katalinic V, Milos M (2004). Use of different methods for testing antioxidative activity of Oregano essential oil. Food chem. 85:633–640.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.07.024
 
Lagouri V, Blekas G, Tsimidou M, Kokkini S, Boskou D (1993). Composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils from Oregano plants grown wild in Greece. Z. Lenbenson. Unters. Forsch. 197:20– 23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01202694
 
Lagouri V, Boskou D (1996). Nutrient antioxidants in Oregano. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 47:493–497.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637489609031878
PMid:8933203
 
Lamaison JL, Ptitjean-Freytet C, Carnat A (1991). Lamiaceae medicinal antioxidant properties, rosmaranic acid as potential source. Pharm. Acta. Helv. 66:185–188 CA 1991, 115, 787152.
 
Lemhadri A, Zeggwagh NA, Maghrani M, Jouad H, Eddouk M (2004). Antihyperglycaemic activity of aqueous extract of Oreganum vulgare growing wild in Tafilate region. J. Ethnopharmocol, 92(2 – 3): 251–256.
 
Letchamo W, Xu H, Gosselin A (1995). Variations in photosynthesis and essential oil in thyme. J. Plant Physiol. 147:29–37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1995.9698573
 
Leung AY, Steven F (2003). Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food,drugs and cosmetics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience. (HSA Library).
 
Liang CH, Chou TH, Ding HY (2010). Inhibition of melanogensis by a novel origanoside from Origanum vulgare. J. Dermatol. Sci. 57:170−177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2009.12.009
PMid:20071152
 
Lin YL, Wang CN, Shiao YJ, Liu TY, Wang WY (2003). Benzolignanoid and polyphenols from Origanum vulgare. J. Chin.Chem. Soc. 50:1079−1083.
 
Mastelic J, Jerkovic I, Blazevic I, Poljak-Blazi M, Borovic S, Ivancic-Bace I, Smrecki V, Zarkovic N, Brcic-Kostic K, Vikic–Topic D, Muller N (2008). Comparative study on the antioxidant and biological activities of carvacrol, thymol and eugenol derivatives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:3989–3996.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf073272v
PMid:18473475
 
Moldenke HN, Alma LM 1952). Plants of the bible. New York: Dover.Publications, Inc. (HSA Library).
 
Nakatani N (2000). Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices. Biofactors, 3:141–146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.5520130123
 
Nakatani N, Kikuzaki H (1987). A new antioxidative glucoside isolated from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Agric. Biol. Chem. 51:2727−2732.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.51.2727
 
Ormancy X, Sisalli S, Couliere P (2001). Formulation of essential oils in functional perfumery. Perfumes, Cosmetiques, Actualities, 157:30–40.
 
Ozdemir B, Ekbul A, Topal NB, Sarandol E, Sag S, Başer KHC, Cordan J, Gullulu S, Tuncel E, Baran I, Aydinlar A (2008). Effects of Origanum onites on endothelial function and serum biochemical markers in hyperlipidaemic patients. J. Int. Med. Res. 36(6):1326-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147323000803600621
PMid:19094443
 
Paster N, Menasherov M, Shaaya E, Juven B, Ravid U (1993). The use of essential oils applied as fumigants to control mycotoxigenic fungi attacking stored grain. Hassadeh 74(1):25-27.
 
Picton M. 2000). The book of magical herbs: herbal history, mystery, & folklore. London: Barron's.
 
Puertas MM, Hille BS, Stashenko E, Winterhalter P (2002). In vitro Radical Scavenging Activity of Essential Oils from Columbian Plants and Fractions from Oregano (origanum vulagre L.) Essential oil. Flavor Frag. J. 17:380–384.
 
Revinthi-Moraiti K, Komaitis ME, Evangelatos G, Kapoulas V (1985). Identification and quantitative determination of the lipids of dried Origanum dictamnus leaves. Food chem. 16:15-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(85)90016-0
 
Sahin F, Gulluce M, Daferera D, Sokmen A, Sokmen M, Polissiou M, Agar G, Ozer H (2004). Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Food Contr.15:549–557.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2003.08.009
 
Sari M, Biondi DM, Kaabeche M, Mandalari G, Darrigo M, Bisignano G, Saija A, Daquino C, Ruberto G (2006). Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and AntioxidantActivities of the Essential Oil of Several Populations of Algerian Origanum glandulosum Desf. Flavour Frag. J. 21:890–898.
 
Sawamura M (2000). Aroma and functional properties of Japenese yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka). Essen. Oil Aroma Res. 1(1):14–19.
 
Sevki C, Girisgin O, Kurkcuoglu M, Malyer H, Girisgin AO, Kinmer N, Baser KH (2008). Acaricidal efficacy of Origanum onites L. essential oil against Rhipicephalus turanicus (Ixodidae). Parasitol. Res. 103(2):259-261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-0956-x
PMid:18438729
 
Silva FV, Guimaraes AG, Silva ER, Sousa-Neto BP, Machado FD, Quintans-Júnior LJ, Arcanjo DD, Oliveira FA, Oliveira RC (2012). Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activities of carvacrol, a monoterpene present in the essential oil of oregano. J. Med. Food. 15(11):984-991.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2012.0102
PMid:22892022
 
Simon JE, Alena FC, Lyle EC (1984). Herbs: an indexed bibliography 1971-1980 - the scientific literature on selected herbs, and aromatic and medicinal plants of the temperatezone. Archon Books. (HSA Library).
 
Sivropoulou A, Papanikolaou E, Nikolaou C, Kokkini S, Lanaras T, Arsenakis M, (1996). Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Origanum Essential Oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:1202– 1205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf950540t
 
Skaltsa H, Chatzopoulou A, Karioti A, Gousiadou C, Vivancos VL, Kyriazopoulos P, Golegou S (2010). Depsides and other polar constituents from Origanum dictamnus L. and their in vitro antimicrobial activity in clinical strains. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:6064−6068.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf904596m
PMid:20423097
 
Skoula M, Harborne JB, (2002). Taxonomy and Chemistry. In :Kintzios SE (ed) Oregano: The genera Origanum and Lippia. Medicinal and aromatic plants -industrial profiles, vol. 25. Taylor and Francis CRC Press, USA Pp 67– 108.
 
Skoula M, Sotiris K (1997). Origanum dictamnus L. and Origanum vulgare L.subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart: traditional uses and production in Greece. In Oregano:proceedings of the IPGRI international workshop on oregano 8-12May1996, CIHEAM, Valenzano(Bari), Italy. Edited by S. Padulosi. Rome: Int. Plant Genetic Resources Institute.
 
Small E (1997). Culinary herbs. Ottawa: NRC Research Press. (HSA Library).
 
Sokmen M, Serkedjieva J, Daferera D, Gulluce M, Polissiou M, Tepe B, Akpulat HA, Sahin F, Sokmen A (2004). The in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts from herbal parts and callus cultures of Origanum acutidens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:3309-3312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf049859g
PMid:15161188
 
Sokovic M, Tzakou O, Pitarokili D, Couladis M (2002). Antifungal Activities of selected Aromatic Plants Growing Wild in Greece. Nahrung / Food 46:317- 320.
 
Stashenko EE, Puertas MA, Martinez JR (2002). SPME determination of volatile aldehydes for evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity. Analyt. Bioanalyt. Chem. 373:70-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-002-1264-4
PMid:12012174
 
Stefanakis MK, Anastasopoulos E, Katerinopoulos HE, Makridis P (2013). Use of essential oils extracted from three Origanum species for disinfection of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) Aquacult. Res. doi:10.1111/are.12137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/are.12137
 
Tackholm V (1974). Students Flora of Egypt, 2nd edn.,562.Cooperative Printing Co., Beirut.
 
Tucker AO (1992). Will the real oregano please stand up? The herb companion. (HSA Library) 4(3):20-22.
 
Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valintine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1972). Flora Europaea. University Press, Cambridge. 3:171-172.
 
Ultee A, Kets E, Smid EJ (1997). Mechanism of action of Carvacrol on the food borne pathogen Bacillus cerlus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:4606–4610.
 
Vichi S, Zitterl-Eglseer K, Jugl M, Franz C (2001). Determination of the presence of antioxidants deriving from sage and Oregano extracts added to animal fat by means of assessment of the radical scavenging capacity by photo chemiluminescence analysis. Nabrung 45(2):101-104.
 
Vokou D, Kokkini S, Bessiere JM (1993). Geographic variation of Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp.hirtum) essential oils. Biochem. System. Ecol. 21:287–295.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-1978(93)90047-U
 
Yadava RN, Khare MK (1995). A triterpenoid from Majorana hortensis. Fitoterapia 66(2):185.
 
Yanishlieva NV, Marinova EM, Gordon MH (1999). Antioxidant activity and mechanism of action of thymol and carvacrol in two lipid systems. Food chem. 64:59-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00086-7

 


APA (2013). Medicinal importance of genus Origanum: A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 5(10), 170-177.
Chicago Shayista Chishti, Zahoor A. Kaloo and Phalestine Sultan. "Medicinal importance of genus Origanum: A review." Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 5, no. 10 (2013): 170-177.
MLA Shayista Chishti, Zahoor A. Kaloo and Phalestine Sultan. "Medicinal importance of genus Origanum: A review." Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 5.10 (2013): 170-177.
   
DOI 10.5897/JPP2013.0285
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JPP/article-abstract/7B02BA440210

Subscription Form