Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology
Subscribe to JPVB
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 6766B2662284


Vol.9(1), pp. 1-7 , January 2017
DOI: 10.5897/JPVB2016.0257
ISSN: 2141-2510



Full Length Research Paper

Prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparium and Plasmodium vivax malaria carriage among school children of malaria endemic areas of Mirab Abaya district, Southern Ethiopia



Ashenafi Abossie
  • Ashenafi Abossie
  • Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Arba Minch University, P. O. Box 21, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Alemayehu Bekele
  • Alemayehu Bekele
  • Clinical Nursing Team, Arba Minch College of Health Sciences, P. O. Box 155, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Tsegaye Yohanes
  • Tsegaye Yohanes
  • Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Arba Minch University, P. O. Box 21, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Adugna Abera
  • Adugna Abera
  • Armauer Hansen Research Institute, ALERT Campus, P. O. Box 1005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 10 July 2016  Accepted: 21 December 2016  Published: 31 January 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia has been reported in areas with high malaria transmission. Asymptomatic malaria carriers may play a significant role as an infection reservoir. Malaria elimination program have also faced challenges due to these parasite carriers and they should be considered in malaria-control programs in endemic areas for successful transmission interruption. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparium and Plasmodium vivax malaria among school children in malaria endemic areas of Mirab Abaya District, Southern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study design was employed from December 2014 to February 2015. A total of 422 school children aged 6 to 15 years were recruited using simple random sampling for this study, and blood samples were collected from asymptomatic school children residing in Mirab Abaya district kebeles. Malaria parasitemia was examined by using light microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Asymptomatic malaria carriage was evaluated with the socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. In this study, the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage was 1.2 and 3.6% with light microscopy and RDT, respectively. The overall prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage (P. falciparium and P.vivax) were 15 (3.6%) (95%CI: 1.8-5.5). Of all Plasmodium carriage, 11 (73.4%) school children had P. falciparium and 4 (26.6%) had P. vivax infections. The prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage (both in P.falciparium and P.vivax) did not correlate with gender and age group of school children in this study. The study revealed that the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium malaria carriage is low. The result also indicates the ability of RDT to detect more asymptomatic Plasmodium malaria than microscopy. Therefore, treatment of asymptomatic carriers is very important and persistent malaria prevention and control strategies should be enhanced to achieve the elimination program, in endemic malaria areas.

Key words: Asymptomatic malaria, light microscopy, rapid diagnostic test, Plasmodium falciparium, Plasmodium vivax.

Abbreviation:

RDT, Rapid diagnostic  test; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; ITNs, insecticide treated nets; SNNPR, South Nation Nationalities People Region.


Awan ZR, Khan AK, Shah AH, Suleman M, Khan MA (2012). Assessment of Malaria Prevalence Among School Children In Rural Areas of Bannu District Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pak. J. Zool. 44(2):321.

 

Aynalem A. (2014). Vectored Infectious Diseases: Malaria in Ethiopia. Available at:

View

 
 

Beffa Defi G, Belachew A, Addissie A, Hailemariam Z (2015). A Malaria Outbreak in Ameya Woreda, South-West Shoa, Oromia, Ethiopia, 2012: Weaknesses in Disease Control, Important Risk Factors. Am. J. Health Res. 3(3):125-129.
Crossref

 
 

Diallo A, Ndam NT, Moussiliou A, Santos S, Ndonky A, Borderon M, Hesran JY (2012). Asymptomatic carriage of Plasmodium in urban Dakar: The risk of malaria should not be underestimated. PLoS ONE 7(2):e31100
Crossref

 
 

Eskindir L, Bernt L (2010). Model variations in predicting incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using 1998-2007 morbidity and meteorological data from south Ethiopia. Malar. J. 9:166.
Crossref

 
 

Federal Ministry of Health (FMH) (2010). National five-year strategic plan for malaria prevention and control in Ethiopia 2006-2010. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

 
 

Ganguly S, Saha P, Guha SK, Biswas A, Kundu PK, Maji AK, et al (2013). High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in a tribal population of Eastern India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(5):1439-1444.
Crossref

 
 

Golassa L, Baliraine FN, Enweji N, Erko B, Swedberg G, Aseffa A (2015). Microscopic and molecular evidence of the presence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in an area with low, seasonal and unstable malaria transmission in Ethiopia. BMC Infect. Dis. 15(1):310.
Crossref

 
 

Gudo E, Prista A, Jani IV (2013). Impact of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia on the immunohematological indices among school children and adolescents in a rural area highly endemic for Malaria in southern Mozambique. BMC Infect. Dis. 13(1):244.
Crossref

 
 

Haji Y , Fogarty AW , Deressa W (2016). Prevalence and associated factors of malaria among febrile children in Ethiopia: A cross-sectional health facility-based study. Acta Trop. 155:63-70
Crossref

 
 

Kun JF, Missinou MA, Lell B, Sovric M, Knoop H, Bojowald B, Dangelmaier O, Kremsner PG (2002). New emerging Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in children during the transition phase from asymptomatic parasitemia to malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66:653-658.

 
 

Ligabaw W, Demekech D, Mengistu E, Sisay G, Mulugeta A (2014). Asymptomatic Malaria and Associated Risk Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Intl. Scholarly Res. Notices. Available at: 

View

 
 

Makanga M (2014). A review of the effects of artemether-lumefantrine on gametocyte carriage and disease transmission. Malar. J. 13(1):291.
Crossref

 
 

Matangila JR, Lufuluabu J, Ibalanky AL, da Luz RA, Lutumba PT,Van Geertruyden JP (2014). Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with anaemia in pregnancy and can be more cost-effectively detected by rapid diagnostic test than by microscopy in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Malar. J. 13(1):132.
Crossref

 
 

Molineaux L, Wernsdorfer WH, McGregor I (1988). The epidemiology of human malaria as an explanation of its distribution, including some implications for its control. Malaria: Principles and Practice of Malariology 2:913-998.

 
 

Nankabirwa J, Brooker SJ, Clarke SE, Fernando D, Gitonga CW, Schellenberg D, Greenwood B (2014). Malaria in school-age children in Africa: An increasingly important challenge. Trop. Med. Int. Health 19(11):1294-1309.
Crossref

 
 

Nega D, Dana D, Tefera T, Eshetu T (2015). Prevalence and Predictors of Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia among Pregnant Women in the Rural Surroundings of Arbaminch Town, South Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0123630.
Crossref

 
 

Nzobo BN, Ngasala BE, Kihamia CM (2015). Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection and use of different malaria control measures among primary school children in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Malar. J. 14:491.
Crossref

 
 

Sarpong N, Owusu‑Dabo E, Kreuels B, Fobil JN, Segbaya S, et al (2015). Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in school children from two districts of Ghana earmarked for indoor residual spraying: a cross-sectional study. Malar. J. 14:260.
Crossref

 
 

Singh R, Godson II, Singh S, Singh RB, Isyaku NT, Ebere UV (2014). High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in apparently healthy schoolchildren in Aliero, Kebbi state Nigeria. J. Vector Borne Dis. 51(2):128-132.

 
 

Staalsoe T, Hviid L (1998). The role of variant-specific immunity in asymptomatic malaria infections: Maintaining a fine balance. Parasitol. Today 14(5):177-178.
Crossref

 
 

Stevenson JC, Stresman GH, Gitonga CW, Gillig J, Bousema T, Drakeley C,Cox J (2013). Reliability of School Surveys in Estimating Geographic Variation in Malaria Transmission in the Western Kenyan Highlands. PloS ONE 8(10):1-12.
Crossref

 
 

Strom GEA, Tellevik MG, Fataki M, Langeland N, Blomberg B (2013). No asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia found among 108 young children atone health facility in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malar. J.12:417.
Crossref

 
 

Tientche B, Smith Asaah DNA, Fru-Cho J, Nkuo-Akenji TK (2016). Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in school children of Ekondo Titi sub-division, Cameroon. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 3 (8):182-190.

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2010). Basic Malaria Microscopy: Part II Learner's guide. Available at: 

View

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2012). World malaria report 2012. Available at: 

View

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2014). World malaria report 2014. Available at: 

View

 

 


APA Abossie, A., Bekele, A., Yohanes, T. & Abera, A. (2017). Prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparium and Plasmodium vivax malaria carriage among school children of malaria endemic areas of Mirab Abaya district, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology, 9(1), 1-7.
Chicago Ashenafi Abossie, Alemayehu Bekele, Tsegaye Yohanes and Adugna Abera. "Prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparium and Plasmodium vivax malaria carriage among school children of malaria endemic areas of Mirab Abaya district, Southern Ethiopia." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 9, no. 1 (2017): 1-7.
MLA Ashenafi Abossie, et al. "Prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparium and Plasmodium vivax malaria carriage among school children of malaria endemic areas of Mirab Abaya district, Southern Ethiopia." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 9.1 (2017): 1-7.
   
DOI 10.5897/JPVB2016.0257
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JPVB/article-abstract/6766B2662284

Subscription Form