Tsetse flies are hematophagous insects of the genus Glossina that belong to the family Glossinidae. They are important because of their ability to spread disease among men and among domestic animals. Tsetse flies are strictly blood feeders, and in the act of piercing the skin and sucking blood, the flies transmit blood parasite trypanosomes to previously uninfected animals or man, causing the disease nagana, which is the most important economically devastating disease in tropical countries. The tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis, hinders the effort being made for food self sufficiency. In Ethiopia, about 240,000 km2 of the land is infested with tsetse flies and the main pathogenic trypanosomiasis that need tsetse as a biological vector are Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei. In current Ethiopia, trypanosomosis is one of the most important diseases which contribute to direct and indirect economic losses on livestock productivity, and the extent of the disease prevalence in relation to tsetse fly control. Tsetse fly control has a great impact on economic development in terms of its cost, and some control techniques are ecologically unacceptable. Nowadays, the cheapest and quickest way of controlling trypanosomosis is reducing the number of tsetse fly vectors than treating the infected animals.
Key words: Glossina, insecticide, Nagana, sterile insect techniques, tsetse fly.