Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology
Subscribe to JPVB
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - D24780E63958


Vol.9(5), pp. 47-56 , May 2017
DOI: 10.5897/JPVB2016.0262
ISSN: 2141-2510



Full Length Research Paper

Seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis among people with epilepsy epileptic patients in three rural districts of Northern Uganda



Simon Peter Alarakol
  • Simon Peter Alarakol
  • Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, P. O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda
  • Google Scholar
Moses Lotokome Joloba
  • Moses Lotokome Joloba
  • Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, P. O. Box 166 Gulu, Uganda
  • Google Scholar
Emmanuel Odongo Aginya
  • Emmanuel Odongo Aginya
  • School of Biomedical Sciences, Makerere College of Health Sciences, P. O. Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 24 July 2016  Accepted: 06 October 2016  Published: 30 May 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Taenia solium pork tapeworm is one of the parasites that causes serious public health and socioeconomic problems in developing countries. In Northern Uganda, extreme level of poverty, lack of sanitation infrastructure and communities’ practice of free range pig farming provide suitable condition for survival of T. solium in the area. Additionally, increased cases of epilepsy are of serious concern. The aim of the study was to determine the proportion of patients with epilepsy who are positive for metacestodes of T. solium antigens and anticysticercal IgG antibodies in three districts of Northern Uganda. Forty two thousand nine hundred three participants were screened for epileptic seizures. Three hundred random samples were screened for anticysticercal IgG and circulating antigens using indirect antibody and monoclonal antibody ELISAs. Samples positive for anticysticercal IgG were confirmed using western blot. The seroprevalence of anticysticercal IgG and circulating antigens among patients samples using indirect antibody ELISA and monoclonal antibody ELISA was 15% (95% CI = 14.5-15.5 and 9% (95% CI 8.5-9.5) respectively. Thirteen, 13% (95%CI = 12.5-13.5) of patient samples were positive for T. solium specific glycoprotein on immunoblot. There was no significance difference (P = 0.057) in seroprevalence of anticysticrecal IgG and circulating antigens between males and females. This finding indicates that T. solium infections occur among communities in three rural districts of Northern Uganda. There is a potential for proliferation of pork tape worm infections among the communities. Therefore, there is need for Health authorities to strengthen training of health workers and enforcement of public health education in the community on epilepsy associated with neurocysticercosis.

 

Key words: Neurocysticercosis, seroprevalence, westernblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAs), rural communities, Northern Uganda.

Azian MN, Hakim SL, Sumiati A, Norhafizah M (2006). Seroprevalence of cysticercosis in a rural village of Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 37(1):58.

 

Basem RNA, Amal SMS, Asmaa AAH, Moshen A (2010). Occurrence of Taenia solium and cysticercosis in man in Egypt. Vet. World 3(2):57-60.

 
 

Brandt JR, Geerts S, Deken DER (1992). Monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the detection of circulating excretory secretory antigens in Taenia saginata cysticercosis. Int. Parasitol. 22:471-477.
Crossref

 
 

Bueno EC, Scheel CM, Vaz AJ (2005). Application of synthetic 8-kD and recombinant GP50 antigens in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme Linked immunnosorbent assay Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72:278-283.

 
 

Bueno EC, Snege M, Vazz AJ, Lesser PG (2001). Serodiagnosis of human cysticercosis by using antigens from vescicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis. Clinic. Diagnos. Lab. Immunol. 8:1140-1144.

 
 

Carabin H, Krecek RC, Cowan LD, Michael L, Foyaca SH, Nash T, Wilingham AL (2006). Estimation of the cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Trop. Med. Intern. 11(6):906-916.
Crossref

 
 

Chung JY, Bahk YY, Huh S, Kang SY, Kong Y, Cho SY (1999). A recombinant 10-kDa protein of Taenia solium metacestodes specific to active neurocysticercosis. J. infect. Dis. 80:1307-15.
Crossref

 
 

Chung JY, Eom KS, Yang Y, Li X, Feng Z, Rim HJ, Cho SY, Kong Y (2005). A seroepidemiological survey of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Nabo, Guangxi, Autonomous Region, China. Korean J. Parasitol. 43(4):135-139.
Crossref

 
 

Ferrer E, Zully C, Rojas G, Lares M, Vera A, Belkis AN, Iris F, Haidee UR, Leslie JS, Harrison R, Michael EP, Milagros MC (2003). Evidence for high seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in individuals from three rural communities in Venezuela. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 97:522-526.
Crossref

 
 

Fleury A (2006). An epidemiological study of familial neurocysticercosis in an endemic Mexican community. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 38(6):530-531.
Crossref

 
 

Garcia HH, Gonzale AE, Evans CAW, Gilman RH (2003). Cysticercosis working group in Peru. Lancet 362:547-556.

 
 

Garcia HH, Gonzale AE, Gilman RH (2001). Transient antibody response in Taenia solium infection in field condition; a major contributor to high prevalence. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65:31-32.

 
 

Githigia SM, Murekefu K, Ngesa SM, Otieno RO, Kahai R (2002). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors in Busia District, Kenya. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Meeting of ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern and Southern Africa, Lusaka, Zambia, 2002.

 
 

Handcock K, Pattabbi S, Greene RM, Yushak ML, Williams F, Khan A, Priest JW, Levine MZ, Tsang VC (2004). Characterization and cloning of GP50, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 133:115-124.
Crossref

 
 

Ito A, Nakao M, Wandra T (2003). Human taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia. Lancet 362:1918-1920.
Crossref

 
 

Jin-Mei xu, Luz P, Min H, Daria LM, Mario J, Blanca J, Archie OPR, Ovleda M, Gretchen L, Stephen TMG, Kutis DJ, Friedman JF, Hai-wai W (2010). A Serporevalence of cysticercosis in children and Young adults living in a helminth endemic community in Leyte, the Philippines. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. J. Trop. Med. 2010:6.

 
 

Kish L (1965). Survey sampling.

 
 

Lescano AG, Garcia HH, Gilman RH, ClaUDIA MG, Tsang VCW, Gavida CM, Rodriguez S, Moulton LH, Justin AG, Armando E. Gonzalez A, The cysticercosis working group in Peru (2007). Swine cysticercosis hotspots surrounding Taenia solium tape worm carriers. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 76(2):376-383.

 
 

Minozzo JC, Moura JD, Almeida SM, Soccol VT (2008). Crude antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis used as heterologous antigen in ELISA and EITB for neurocysticercosis diagnosis of patients from Parana Brazil. Brazil. Arch. Biol. Technol. 51(6):1127-1137.
Crossref

 
 

Molinari JL, Garcia-Mendoza E, De la GY, Ramirez A, Sotelo J, Tato P (2002). Discrimination between active and inactive neurocysticercosis by metacestode excretory/secretory antigens of Taenia solium in anEnzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66:777-781.

 
 

Moore C (1995). Seroprevalence of cysticercosis in an orthodox Jewish community. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53(5):439-442.

 
 

Ngowi HA, Kassuku AA, Maeda GEM, Boa ME, Carabin A, Willingham III AL (2004). Risk factors for the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania. Vet. Parasitol. 120(4):275-283.
Crossref

 
 

Nsadha Z, Saimo M (2011). Trans-boundary porcine cysticercosis a possibility on Uganda's boarders. Afr. J. Ann. Biomed Sci. 5(3):67-71.

 
 

Nsengiyumva G, Druet-Cabanac M, Ramanankandrasana B, Bouteille B, Nsizabira L, Preux PM (2002). Cysticercosis as major risk factors for epilepsy in Burundi, East Africa. Epilepsia 44(7):950-955.
Crossref

 
 

Oliveira HB (2006). Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes IgGantibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central region in Brazil. Rev. Instituto Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 48(1):49-52.
Crossref

 
 

Parija SC, Rajesh RS (2006). Co-agglutination test for cysticercus antigen detection in the serum for the diagnosis of cysticercosis. Trop. Doct. 36(3):144-147.
Crossref

 
 

Parija SC, Raman GA (2011). Anti-Taenia solium larval stage IgG antibodies in patients with epileptic seizures. Trop. Parasitol. 1(1):20-25.
Crossref

 
 

Prado JK, Kanobana D, Cabanac M, Nsengnyumva G, Dorrny P, Preux M, Greets S (2007). Combined use of antigen and antibody detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for cysticercosis as tools in an epidemiological study of epilepsy in Burundi. Trop. Med. Int. Health 12(7):895-901.
Crossref

 
 

Praet N, Kireze KCK, Maketa V, Lukanu P, Lutumba P, Polman K, Matondo P, Speybroek P, Dorny P, Sumbu J (2010). Taenia soilum cysticercosis in democratic Republic of Congo: How does pork Trade affect the transmission of the parasites. PLOS Neg. Trop. Dis. 4(9):e817.
Crossref

 
 

Sloan L, Schneider S, Rosenblat J (1995). Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay for Serological Diagnosis of Cysticercosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33(12):3124-3128.

 
 

Sutisna IP, Fraser A, Kapti IN, Rodriguez-Canul R, Puta Widjana D, Craig PS, Allan JC (1999). Community prevalence study of Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia. Trop. Med. Int. Health 4(4):288-294.
Crossref

 
 

Waiswa CF, Ever EM, Nsadha Z, Sikasunge CS, Willingham III A L (2009). Porcine Cysticercosis in Southeast Uganda: Seroprevalence in Kamuli and Kaliro. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. J. Parasitol. Res. 2009:5.
Crossref

 
 

Wandra T, Ito A, Yamasaki H, Soroso T, Morgono SS (2003). Taenia solium cysticercosis, Irian, Jaya, Indonesia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:7.
Crossref

 
 

Willingham AL, De NV, Doanh NQ (2003). Current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam. S.E Asian. J. Trop. Med. Public Health 34(suppl.1):35-50.

 
 

Zoli AP, Nguekam, Njila OS, Nforninwe DS, Speybroeck, Ito A, Sato MO, Dorny P, Brandt J, Greets S (2003). Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Cameroon. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. 97:683-686.
Crossref

 

 


APA Alarakol, S. P., Joloba, M. L. & Aginya, E. O. (2017). Seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis among people with epilepsy epileptic patients in three rural districts of Northern Uganda. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology, 9(5), 47-56.
Chicago Simon Peter Alarakol, Moses Lotokome Joloba and Emmanuel Odongo Aginya. "Seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis among people with epilepsy epileptic patients in three rural districts of Northern Uganda." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 9, no. 5 (2017): 47-56.
MLA Simon Peter Alarakol, Moses Lotokome Joloba and Emmanuel Odongo Aginya. "Seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis among people with epilepsy epileptic patients in three rural districts of Northern Uganda." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 9.5 (2017): 47-56.
   
DOI 10.5897/JPVB2016.0262
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JPVB/article-abstract/D24780E63958

Subscription Form